What do you think it would be like to be in therapy with Rollo May? Would you have wanted May to be your therapist? Why or why not?  What would be his focus?



Jess Feist Gregory J. Feist Tomi-Ann Roberts

Ninth Edition

Theories of Personality

Jess Feist McNeese State University

Gregory J. Feist San Jose State University

Tomi-Ann Roberts Colorado College


Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2018 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2013, 2009, and 2006. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic  storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

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Names: Feist, Jess, author. | Feist, Gregory J., author. | Roberts, Tomi-Ann, author. Title: Theories of personality / Jess Feist, McNeese State University, Gregory J. Feist, San Jose State University, Tomi-Ann Roberts, Colorado College. Description: Ninth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, [2018] | Revised edition of the authors’ Theories of personality, c2013. | Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Identifiers: LCCN 2016050779 | ISBN 9780077861926 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0077861922 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Personality—Textbooks. Classification: LCC BF698 .F365 2018 | DDC 155.2—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016050779

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About the Authors

Jess Feist was Professor of Psychology at McNeese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana from 1964 until his death in 2015. Besides coauthoring Theories of Personality, he coauthored with Linda Brannon, Health Psychology: An Introduction to Behavior and Health. He earned his under- graduate degree from St. Mary of the Plains and graduate de- grees from Wichita State University and the University of Kan- sas. His research interest was in early childhood recollections.

Gregory J. Feist is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at San Jose State University. He has also taught at the College of William & Mary and University of California, Davis. He received his PhD in personality psychology in 1991 from the University of California at Berkeley and his under- graduate degree in 1985 from the University of Massachusetts– Amherst. He is widely published in the psychology of creativity, the psychology of science, and the development of scientific tal- ent. His recent book, The Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific Mind, was awarded the William James Book Award from the American Psychological Association (APA). He is founding president of the International Society for the Psy- chology of Science & Technology and founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Psychology of Science & Technology. His re- search in creativity has been recognized by an Early Career Award from the Division for Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts (Division 10) of APA, and he is former president of Division 10. Finally, he is co-author of Psychology: Perspectives and Connections (McGraw-Hill) with Erika Rosenberg.


About the Authorsiv

Tomi-Ann Roberts is a Professor of Psychology at Colorado College. She received her PhD in social and personality psy- chology in 1990 from Stanford University, and her BA in psychology from Smith College in 1985. Her publications in the areas of gender, personality, and emotion psychology include “Objectification Theory,” an original theory that has generated a great deal of research into the causes and conse- quences of the sexual objectification of girls and women. The first paper she co-authored on this topic is the most cited ar- ticle in the 35-year history of the journal Psychology of Women Quarterly. She served on the American Psychologi- cal Association’s Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, is coauthor of the Sexualization of Girls and Girlhood: Causes, Consequences and Resistance (2012), and continues to work on empirical research, applied consulting work, and media efforts in this area. In addition to her teaching in both psy- chology and gender studies at Colorado College, she cur- rently serves on the executive committee of APA’s Division 35, chairs a Task Force on Educating Through Feminist Re- search, and is a certified Laughter Yoga Leader.


PART I Introduction 1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Personality Theory 2

What Is Personality? 3

What Is a Theory? 5 Theory Defined 5

Theory and Its Relatives 5 Philosophy 5 Speculation 6 Hypothesis 6 Taxonomy 7

Why Different Theories? 7

Perspectives in Theories of Personality 7 Psychodynamic Theories 8 Humanistic-Existential Theories 8 Dispositional Theories 8 Biological-Evolutionary Theories 8 Learning-(Social) Cognitive Theories 8

Theorists’ Personalities and Their Theories of Personality 10

What Makes a Theory Useful? 11 Generates Research 12 Is Falsifiable 12 Organizes Data 13 Guides Action 13 Is Internally Consistent 14 Is Parsimonious 14

Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity 14

Research in Personality Theory 16


PART II Psychodynamic Theories 19

CHAPTER 2 Freud: Psychoanalysis 20

Overview of Psychoanalytic Theory 21

Biography of Sigmund Freud 22

Levels of Mental Life 28 Unconscious 28

Preconscious 29

Conscious 30

Provinces of the Mind 31 The Id 32

The Ego 33

The Superego 34

Dynamics of Personality 36 Drives 36

Sex 36 Aggression 37

Anxiety 38

Defense Mechanisms 39 Repression 39

Reaction Formation 40

Displacement 40

Fixation 41

Regression 41

Projection 41

Introjection 42

Sublimation 42

Stages of Development 43 Infantile Period 43

Oral Phase 43

vi Contents

Anal Phase 44 Phallic Phase 45 Male Oedipus Complex 45 Female Oedipus Complex 47

Latency Period 50

Genital Period 50

Maturity 51

Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory 52 Freud’s Early Therapeutic Technique 52

Freud’s Later Therapeutic Technique 53

Dream Analysis 54

Freudian Slips 56

Related Research 57 Unconscious Mental Processing 58

Pleasure and the Id, Inhibition and the Ego 59

Repression, Inhibition, and Defense Mechanisms 60

Research on Dreams 61

Critique of Freud 63 Did Freud Understand Women, Gender,

and Sexuality? 63

Was Freud a Scientist? 65

Concept of Humanity 67

CHAPTER 3 Adler: Individual Psychology 70

Overview of Individual Psychology 71

Biography of Alfred Adler 72

Introduction to Adlerian Theory 75

Striving for Success or Superiority 76 The Final Goal 76

The Striving Force as Compensation 77

Striving for Personal Superiority 78

Striving for Success 78

Subjective Perceptions 79 Fictionalism 79

Physical Inferiorities 79

Unity and Self-Consistency of Personality 80 Organ Dialect 80

Conscious and Unconscious 81

Social Interest 81 Origins of Social Interest 82

Importance of Social Interest 83

Style of Life 84

Creative Power 85

Abnormal Development 85 General Description 86

External Factors in Maladjustment 86 Exaggerated Physical Deficiencies 86 Pampered Style of Life 87 Neglected Style of Life 87

Safeguarding Tendencies 87 Excuses 88 Aggression 88 Withdrawal 89

Masculine Protest 90 Origins of the Masculine Protest 90 Adler, Freud, and the Masculine Protest 90

Applications of Individual Psychology 91 Family Constellation 91

Early Recollections 92

Dreams 94

Psychotherapy 95

Related Research 96 Birth Order Effects 96

Early Recollections and Career Choice 98

Distinguishing Narcissism as Striving for Superiority, versus Self-Esteem as Striving for Success 100

Critique of Adler 101

Concept of Humanity 102

CHAPTER 4 Jung: Analytical Psychology 104

Overview of Analytical Psychology 105

Biography of Carl Jung 106

Levels of the Psyche 110 Conscious 110

Personal Unconscious 111

Collective Unconscious 111

Archetypes 112


Persona 113 Shadow 114 Anima 115 Animus 116 Great Mother 116 Wise Old Man 117 Hero 117 Self 118

Dynamics of Personality 121 Causality and Teleology 121

Progression and Regression 121

Psychological Types 122 Attitudes 122

Introversion 122 Extraversion 123

Functions 124 Thinking 124 Feeling 124 Sensing 125 Intuiting 125

Development of Personality 127 Stages of Development 127

Childhood 127 Youth 128 Middle Life 128 Old Age 129

Self-Realization 129

Jung’s Methods of Investigation 130

Word Association Test 130

Dream Analysis 131

Active Imagination 133

Psychotherapy 134

Related Research 135 Personality Type and

Leadership 135

Personality Type Among Clergy and Churchgoers 136

A Critical Look at the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 138

Critique of Jung 138

Concept of Humanity 140

CHAPTER 5 Klein: Object Relations Theory 142

Overview of Object Relations Theory 143

Biography of Melanie Klein 144

Introduction to Object Relations Theory 146

Psychic Life of the Infant 147 Phantasies 147

Objects 148

Positions 148 Paranoid-Schizoid Position 148

Depressive Position 150

Psychic Defense Mechanisms 150 Introjection 150

Projection 151

Splitting 151

Projective Identification 152

Internalizations 152 Ego 152

Superego 153

Oedipus Complex 154 Female Oedipal Development 154 Male Oedipal Development 155

Later Views on Object Relations 155 Margaret Mahler’s View 156

Heinz Kohut’s View 158

John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory 159

Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation 160

Psychotherapy 162

Related Research 162 Childhood Trauma and Adult Object

Relations 162

Attachment Theory and Adult Relationships 163

Critique of Object Relations Theory 166

Concept of Humanity 167

CHAPTER 6 Horney: Psychoanalytic Social Theory 170

Overview of Psychoanalytic Social Theory 171


Biography of Karen Horney 172

Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social Theory 174

Horney and Freud Compared 174

The Impact of Culture 174

The Importance of Childhood Experiences 175

Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety 175

Compulsive Drives 177 Neurotic Needs 177

Neurotic Trends 178 Moving Toward People 180 Moving Against People 180 Moving Away From People 181

Intrapsychic Conflicts 182 The Idealized Self-Image 183

The Neurotic Search for Glory 183 Neurotic Claims 184 Neurotic Pride 185

Self-Hatred 185

Feminine Psychology 186

Psychotherapy 189

Related Research 190 Developing and Validating a New Measure

of Horney’s Neurotic Trends 190

Can Neuroticism Ever Be a Good Thing? 191

Critique of Horney 193

Concept of Humanity 194

CHAPTER 7 Erikson: Post-Freudian Theory 196

Overview of Post-Freudian Theory 197

Biography of Erik Erikson 198

The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory 200 Society’s Influence 201

Epigenetic Principle 201

Stages of Psychosocial Development 203 Infancy 205

Oral-Sensory Mode 205 Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust 205 Hope: The Basic Strength of Infancy 206

Early Childhood 206 Anal-Urethral-Muscular Mode 206 Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt 207 Will: The Basic Strength of Early Childhood 207

Play Age 208 Genital-Locomotor Mode 208 Initiative Versus Guilt 208 Purpose: The Basic Strength

of the Play Age 209

School Age 209 Latency 209 Industry Versus Inferiority 209 Competence: The Basic Strength of

the School Age 210

Adolescence 210 Puberty 210 Identity Versus Identity Confusion 210 Fidelity: The Basic Strength

of Adolescence 212

Young Adulthood 212 Genitality 213 Intimacy Versus Isolation 213 Love: The Basic Strength

of Young Adulthood 213

Adulthood 214 Procreativity 214 Generativity Versus Stagnation 214 Care: The Basic Strength of Adulthood 215

Old Age 215 Generalized Sensuality 216 Integrity Versus Despair 216 Wisdom: The Basic Strength

of Old Age 216

Summary of the Life Cycle 217

Erikson’s Methods of Investigation 218 Anthropological Studies 218

Psychohistory 218

Related Research 221 Ego Identity Status in Adolescents

Across Cultures 221

Does Identity Precede Intimacy? 222

Critique of Erikson 223

Concept of Humanity 224



CHAPTER 8 Fromm: Humanistic Psychoanalysis 227

Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis 228

Biography of Erich Fromm 229

Fromm’s Basic Assumptions 231

Human Needs 232 Relatedness 232

Transcendence 233

Rootedness 234

Sense of Identity 235

Frame of Orientation 235

Summary of Human Needs 236

The Burden of Freedom 236 Mechanisms of Escape 237

Authoritarianism 237 Destructiveness 237 Conformity 238

Positive Freedom 238

Character Orientations 238 Nonproductive Orientations 239

Receptive 239 Exploitative 239 Hoarding 239 Marketing 240

The Productive Orientation 241

Personality Disorders 241 Necrophilia 242

Malignant Narcissism 242

Incestuous Symbiosis 242

Psychotherapy 244

Fromm’s Methods of Investigation 244 Social Character in a Mexican Village 244

A Psychohistorical Study of Hitler 246

Related Research 247 Testing the Assumptions of Fromm’s

Marketing Character 247

Estrangement From Culture and Well-Being 248

Authoritarianism and Fear 249

Critique of Fromm 251

Concept of Humanity 252

PART III Humanistic/Existential Theories 255

CHAPTER 9 Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory 256

Overview of Holistic-Dynamic Theory 257

Biography of Abraham H. Maslow 258

Maslow’s View of Motivation 261 Hierarchy of Needs 262

Physiological Needs 263 Safety Needs 263 Love and Belongingness Needs 264 Esteem Needs 265 Self-Actualization Needs 265

Aesthetic Needs 266

Cognitive Needs 266

Neurotic Needs 267

General Discussion of Needs 267 Reversed Order of Needs 267 Unmotivated Behavior 268 Expressive and Coping Behavior 268 Deprivation of Needs 268 Instinctoid Nature of Needs 268 Comparison of Higher and Lower Needs 269

Self-Actualization 270 Maslow’s Quest for the Self-Actualizing

Person 270

Criteria for Self-Actualization 271

Values of Self-Actualizers 272

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People 273 More Efficient Perception of Reality 273 Acceptance of Self, Others, and Nature 273 Spontaneity, Simplicity, and Naturalness 273 Problem-Centering 274 The Need for Privacy 274 Autonomy 274 Continued Freshness of Appreciation 275 The Peak Experience 275 Gemeinschaftsgefühl 276 Profound Interpersonal Relations 276 The Democratic Character Structure 277 Discrimination Between Means and Ends 277



Process 307 Stages of Therapeutic Change 307 Theoretical Explanation for Therapeutic

Change 308

Outcomes 308

The Person of Tomorrow 309

Philosophy of Science 311

The Chicago Studies 312 Hypotheses 312

Method 312

Findings 313

Summary of Results 315

Related Research 315 Self-Discrepancy Theory 315

Motivation and Pursuing One’s Goals 316

Critique of Rogers 319

Concept of Humanity 320

CHAPTER 11 May: Existential Psychology 323

Overview of Existential Psychology 324

Biography of Rollo May 325

Background of Existentialism 328 What Is Existentialism? 328

Basic Concepts 329 Being-in-the-World 329 Nonbeing 330

The Case of Philip 332

Anxiety 332 Normal Anxiety 333

Neurotic Anxiety 333

Guilt 334

Intentionality 335

Care, Love, and Will 336 Union of Love and Will 336

Forms of Love 337 Sex 337 Eros 337 Philia 337 Agape 338

Philosophical Sense of Humor 277 Creativeness 277 Resistance to Enculturation 278

Love, Sex, and Self-Actualization 278

Maslow’s Psychology and Philosophy of Science 279

Measuring Self-Actualization 280

The Jonah Complex 281

Psychotherapy 282

Related Research 283 Mindfulness and Self-Actualization 283

Positive Psychology 284

Critique of Maslow 286

Concept of Humanity 287

CHAPTER 10 Rogers: Person-Centered Theory 290

Overview of Client-Centered Theory 291

Biography of Carl Rogers 292

Person-Centered Theory 295 Basic Assumptions 295

Formative Tendency 295 Actualizing Tendency 296

The Self and Self-Actualization 297 The Self-Concept 297 The Ideal Self 298

Awareness 298 Levels of Awareness 299 Denial of Positive Experiences 299

Becoming a Person 299

Barriers to Psychological Health 300 Conditions of Worth 300 Incongruence 301 Vulnerability 301 Anxiety and Threat 301 Defensiveness 302 Disorganization 302

Psychotherapy 303 Conditions 303

Counselor Congruence 304 Unconditional Positive Regard 305 Empathic Listening 306



Freedom and Destiny 338 Freedom Defined 338

Forms of Freedom 339 Existential Freedom 339 Essential Freedom 339

What Is Destiny? 339

Philip’s Destiny 340

The Power of Myth 340

Psychopathology 342

Psychotherapy 342

Related Research 344 Threats in the Umwelt: Mortality Salience and

Denial of Our Animal Nature 345

Finding Meaning in the Mitwelt: Attachment and Close Relationships 346

Growth in the Eigenwelt: There Is an Upside to Mortality Awareness 348

Critique of May 349

Concept of Humanity 350

PART IV Dispositional Theories 353

CHAPTER 12 Allport: Psychology of the Individual 354

Overview of Allport’s Psychology of the Individual 355

Biography of Gordon Allport 356

Allport’s Approach to Personality Theory 358

What Is Personality? 358

What Is the Role of Conscious Motivation? 359

What Are the Characteristics of a Healthy Person? 359

Structure of Personality 361 Personal Dispositions 361

Levels of Personal Dispositions 362 Cardinal Dispositions 362 Central Dispositions 362 Secondary Dispositions 362 Motivational and Stylistic Dispositions 363

Proprium 363

Motivation 364 A Theory of Motivation 364

Functional Autonomy 365 Perseverative Functional Autonomy 366 Propriate Functional Autonomy 367 Criterion for Functional Autonomy 367 Processes That Are Not Functionally

Autonomous 368

The Study of the Individual 368 Morphogenic Science 368

The Diaries of Marion Taylor 369

Letters From Jenny 370

Related Research 372 Understanding and Reducing Prejudice 372

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientation 375 Religious Motivation and Mental Health 376 Religious Motivation and Physical Health 377

Critique of Allport 378

Concept of Humanity 379

CHAPTER 13 McCrae and Costa’s Five-Factor Trait Theory 382

Overview of Trait and Factor Theories 383

The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell 384

Basics of Factor Analysis 385

The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory? 387

Biographies of Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Jr. 387

In Search of the Big Five 389 Five Factors Found 389

Description of the Five Factors 390

Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory 392 Units of the Five-Factor Theory 393

Core Components of Personality 393 Basic Tendencies 393 Characteristic Adaptations 394 Self-Concept 395 Peripheral Components 395 Biological Bases 395 Objective Biography 396 External Influences 396


xii Contents

Basic Postulates 396 Postulates for Basic Tendencies 396 Postulates for Characteristic Adaptations 398

Related Research 398 Personality and Academic Performance 398

Traits, Internet Use, and Well-Being 400

Traits and Emotions 401

Critique of Trait and Factor Theories 404

Concept of Humanity 405

PART V Biological/Evolutionary Theories 407

CHAPTER 14 Eysenck’s Biologically Based Factor Theory 408

Overview of Biologically Based Trait Theory 409

Biography of Hans J. Eysenck 411

Eysenck’s Factor Theory 413 Criteria for Identifying Factors 414

Hierarchy of Behavior Organization 414

Dimensions of Personality 415 Extraversion 417

Neuroticism 418

Psychoticism 419

Measuring Personality 421

Biological Bases of Personality 421

Personality as a Predictor 422 Personality and Behavior 422

Personality and Disease 423

Related Research 424 The Biological Basis of Extraversion 424

The Biological Basis of Neuroticism 426

Critique of Eysenck’s Biologically Based Theory 428

Concept of Humanity 429

CHAPTER 15 Buss: Evolutionary Theory of Personality 430

Overview of Evolutionary Theory 431

Biography of David Buss 433

Principles of Evolutionary Psychology 435

Evolutionary Theory of Personality 435 The Nature and Nurture of Personality 437

Adaptive Problems and their Solutions (Mechanisms) 437

Evolved Mechanisms 439 Motivation and Emotion as Evolved

Mechanisms 440 Personality Traits as Evolved Mechanisms 440

Origins of Individual Differences 442 Environmental Sources 443 Heritable/Genetic Sources 443 Nonadapative Sources 444 Maladaptive Sources 444

Neo-Bussian Evolutionary Theories of Personality 444

Common Misunderstandings in Evolutionary Theory 446

Evolution Implies Genetic Determinism (Behavior as Set in Stone and Void of Influence From the Environment) 446

Executing Adaptations Requires Conscious Mechanisms 446

Mechanisms Are Optimally Designed 447

Related Research 447 Temperament and the Pre- and Post-Natal

Environment 447

Genetics and Personality 449

Animal Personality 450

Critique of Evolutionary Theory of Personality 453

Concept of Humanity 454

PART VI Learning-Cognitive Theories 457

CHAPTER 16 Skinner: Behavioral Analysis 458

Overview of Behavioral Analysis 459

Biography of B. F. Skinner 460

Precursors to Skinner’s Scientific Behaviorism 463


Scientific Behaviorism 464 Philosophy of Science 465

Characteristics of Science 465

Conditioning 466 Classical Conditioning 467

Operant Conditioning 468 Shaping 468 Reinforcement 470 Positive Reinforcement 470 Negative Reinforcement 470 Punishment 471 Effects of Punishment 471 Punishment and Reinforcement Compared 472 Conditioned and Generalized Reinforcers 472 Schedules of Reinforcement 473 Fixed-Ratio 473 Variable-Ratio 473 Fixed-Interval 474 Variable-Interval 474 Extinction 475

The Human Organism 475 Natural Selection 476

Cultural Evolution 476

Inner States 477 Self-Awareness 477 Drives 478 Emotions 478 Purpose and Intention 478

Complex Behavior 479 Higher Mental Processes 479 Creativity 479 Unconscious Behavior 480 Dreams 480 Social Behavior 481

Control of Human Behavior 481 Social Control 481 Self-Control 482

The Unhealthy Personality 483 Counteracting Strategies 483

Inappropriate Behaviors 484

Psychotherapy 484

Related Research 485

How Conditioning Affects Personality 485

How Personality Affects Conditioning 486

Mutual Influence Between Personality and Conditioning 487

Critique of Skinner 489

Concept of Humanity 490

CHAPTER 17 Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory 494

Overview of Social Cognitive Theory 495

Biography of Albert Bandura 496

Learning 497 Observational Learning 498

Modeling 498 Processes Governing Observational

Learning 499 Attention 499 Representation 499 Behavioral Production 499 Motivation 500

Enactive Learning 500

Triadic Reciprocal Causation 501 An Example of Triadic Reciprocal

Causation 502

Chance Encounters and Fortuitous Events 503

Human Agency 504 Core Features of Human Agency 504

Self-Efficacy 505 What Is Self-Efficacy? 505 What Contributes to Self-Efficacy? 507 Mastery Experiences 507 Social Modeling 507 Social Persuasion 508 Physical and Emotional States 508

Proxy Agency 509

Collective Efficacy 509

Self-Regulation 510 External Factors in Self-Regulation 511

Internal Factors in Self-Regulation 511 Self-Observation 511 Judgmental Process 512 Self-Reaction 513



Self-Regulation Through Moral Agency 513 Redefine the Behavior 514 Disregard or Distort the Consequences

of Behavior 515 Dehumanize or Blame the Victims 515 Displace or Diffuse Responsibility 516

Dysfunctional Behavior 516 Depression 516

Phobias 516

Aggression 517

Therapy 519

Related Research 520 Self-Efficacy and Diabetes 520

Moral Disengagement and Bullying 521

Social Cognitive Theory “Goes Global” 523

Critique of Bandura 523

Concept of Humanity 524

CHAPTER 18 Rotter and Mischel: Cognitive Social Learning Theory 528

Overview of Cognitive Social Learning Theory 529

Biography of Julian Rotter 530

Introduction to Rotter’s Social Learning Theory 531

Predicting Specific Behaviors 532 Behavior Potential 532

Expectancy 533

Reinforcement Value 533

Psychological Situation 534

Basic Prediction Formula 535

Predicting General Behaviors 536 Generalized Expectancies 536

Needs 536 Categories of Needs 537 Recognition-Status 537 Dominance 537 Independence 537 Protection-Dependency 538 Love and Affection 538 Physical Comfort 538

Need Components 538 Need Potential 538 Freedom of Movement 539 Need Value 539

General Prediction Formula 539

Internal and External Control of Reinforcement 541

Interpersonal Trust Scale 543

Maladaptive Behavior 544

Psychotherapy 545 Changing Goals 545

Eliminating Low Expectancies 546

Introduction to Mischel’s Personality Theory 548

Biography of Walter Mischel 548

Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System 550

Consistency Paradox 550

Person-Situation Interaction 551

Cognitive-Affective Personality System 552 Behavior Prediction 553

Situation Variables 553

Cognitive-Affective Units 555 Encoding Strategies 555 Competencies and Self-Regulatory

Strategies 555 Expectancies and Beliefs 556 Goals and Values 557 Affective Responses 558

Related Research 559 Locus of Control and Holocaust Heroes 559

Person-Situation Interaction 560

Marshmallows and Self-Regulation Across the Lifespan 561

Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory 563

Concept of Humanity 564

CHAPTER 19 Kelly: Psychology of Personal Constructs 567

Overview of Personal Construct Theory 568



Biography of George Kelly 569

Kelly’s Philosophical Position 570 Person as Scientist 571

Scientist as Person 571

Constructive Alternativism 571

Personal Constructs 572 Basic Postulate 573

Supporting Corollaries 574 Similarities Among Events 574 Differences Among People 575 Relationships Among Constructs 575 Dichotomy of Constructs 576 Choice Between Dichotomies 577 Range of Convenience 577 Experience and Learning 578 Adaptation to Experience 578 Incompatible Constructs 579 Similarities Among People 579 Social Processes 580

Applications of Personal Construct Theory 581

Abnormal Development 581 Threat 582 Fear 582

Anxiety 582 Guilt 583

Psychotherapy 583

The Rep Test 584

Related Research 586 Gender as a Personal Construct 586

Applying Personal Construct Theory to Intra-Personal Questions of Identity 587 Understanding Internalized Prejudice

Through Personal Construct Theory 588 Reducing the Threat to Feminist

Identification 589

Personal Constructs and the Big Five 590

Critique of Kelly 591

Concept of Humanity 592

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Name Index N-1

Subject Index S-1



What makes people behave as they do? Are people ordinarily aware of what they are doing, or are their behaviors the result of hidden, unconscious motives? Are some people naturally good and others basically evil? Or do all people have potential to be either good or evil? Is human conduct largely a product of nature, or is it shaped mostly by environmental influences? Can people freely choose to mold their per- sonality, or are their lives determined by forces beyond their control? Are people best described by their similarities, or is uniqueness the dominant characteristic of humans? What causes some people to develop disordered personalities whereas others seem to grow toward psychological health?

These questions have been asked and debated by philosophers, scholars, and religious thinkers for se

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