Think about different types of factors that influence your advocacy topic, including policy, guidelines, and regulations. Carefully reflect on how the context provides both opportunity and constraints. Also, consider levers—such as policy—as well as your own practical wisdom and courage. Keep these factors in mind as you complete the following Discussion.

Discussion 2: Policy, Practical Wisdom, and Courage

Think about different types of factors that influence your advocacy topic, including policy, guidelines, and regulations. Carefully reflect on how the context provides both opportunity and constraints. Also, consider levers—such as policy—as well as your own practical wisdom and courage. Keep these factors in mind as you complete the following Discussion.

To prepare:

Consider factors that influence your advocacy topic, including policy, guidelines, and regulations. Carefully reflect on how the context provides both opportunity and constraints. Also, consider levers—such as policy—as well as your own practical wisdom and courage. Keep these factors in mind as you complete the Discussion.

By Day 4 of Week 8

Post an analysis of the issues of policy and practical wisdom as presented by Bruno, Fromberg, Robinson, and Schwartz in this module’s media pieces. How do these ideas and presentations influence your perceptions of the common good as related to early childhood, education, and schooling? In each of the presentations, it takes courage to address the needs identified. Within your post, consider and comment on what it means to exhibit courage. Specifically, how might courage help early childhood leaders to create and manage change?

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      Leadership as Practical Ethics

      Overview Podcasts Videos Articles & Reports Carnegie Ethics Newsletter Classroom Resources Connect All Media Classroom Resources Overview Podcasts Videos Articles & Reports Carnegie Ethics Newsletter Classroom Resources Connect All Media

      Dr. Rosenthal’s paper was presented in Washington, DC, on June 24, 2009, for a panel on “Leader Development in School of Public Affairs” that included faculty from the University of Virginia, Harvard University, and Texas A&M University. The DC conference, on Leadership and National Security Reform, was cosponsored by and at Texas A&M University, and the . The Strategic Studies Institute has published this paper as a chapter in the edited volume, (June, 2010). Click on the link to download the book free of charge. What does one need to know to be a leader in the field of public policy? I want to argue for the centrality of ethics as a basic component of leadership training for anyone pursuing a career in public and international affairs. If you are a student, please take a moment to ask yourself what you have learned about ethics in your time in the classroom. If you are a teacher or administrator, consider what your curriculum covers in this regard. We know that medical students engage medical ethics, law students study legal ethics, business students take on business ethics, military officers study military ethics, and so on. So let’s ask ourselves, what should students and aspiring leaders in public affairs know about ethics to be considered professionals competent to practice? By ethics, I do not mean simply compliance with law. Compliance is of course an essential part of ethics. But it is only a beginning. Compliance is a floor, a minimum upon which to build. Many actions in government, business, or private life comply with the law but are not optimal from an ethical perspective. Examples are all around us. British members of parliament may not have broken laws when they used expense accounts to bill tax payers for lifestyle enhancements such as moat cleaning, the upkeep of expensive second homes, or the rental of adult movies. But surely this kind of behavior was wrong. In more serious policy matters, it may well be that most of our major banks and financial institutions were in full compliance with the law when it came to the management of credit default swaps and derivative trading. Yet something went very wrong in the area of risk and responsibility. There are many things we can do and still be in compliance with law—but some of them are wrong. Ethical reasoning helps us make these distinctions. The discipline of ethics begins with ‘ question: How should one live? Ethics is about choice. What values guide us? What standards do we use? What principles are at stake? And how do we choose between them? An ethical approach to a problem will inquire about ends (goals) and means (the instruments we use to achieve these goals) and the relationship between the two. Ethical reasoning is the process of raising awareness of moral claims and applying principles to arising circumstances. Ethical reasoning implies an interrogation of the moral claims that surround us rather than a mere listing of do’s and don’ts. In a word, ethical inquiry is proactive rather than passive. The philosopher writes that ethics takes as its starting point that: “Human beings are ethical animals … we grade and evaluate, and compare and admire, and claim and justify … Events endlessly adjust our sense of responsibility, our guilt and our shame, and our sense of our own worth and that of others.”, famously gave up his Oxford chair in normative theory, so the story goes, because he felt he had no single normative theory to purvey. Berlin did not pretend to offer a grand theory that would meet the test of the many different types of cases he was concerned with.

      Despite our lack of a single theory or formula, Berlin and others do offer a framework for ethical reasoning. Inspired by Berlin and other pragmatists, I think of this framework as ethics in three dimensions.

      drew between charity and philanthropy.

      describes leadership as “knowing yourself, knowing where you want to go, and then taking others to that new place.” a biographer of . His topic was the leadership style of FDR. Professor Freidel drew a simple X at the top/center of the blackboard. He then drew a zig-zagging line from the bottom of the blackboard up to the top. He explained that Roosevelt considered himself as a sailor heading upwind. The destination was certain—the fixed point represented by the X. Each zig-zag represented a tack back-and-forth needed to approach the goal. As any sailor knows, when in a sail boat, you cannot head directly into the wind. If you try to sail straight into the wind, the sails flap around uselessly, the boat stalls, and you are unable to move forward. This it what sailors call “irons.” So like any experienced helmsman, Roosevelt understood the need to tack back-and-forth. Each tack could mean an uncertain and uneasy compromise. Sometimes he would have to tack horizontally just to maintain his previous gains. Yet each compromise was necessary to maintain headway against the headwinds that would mercilessly beat him back or blow him off course. If we accept leadership as goal-driven and compromise-ridden, then we see that ethics should not be a peripheral to any public policy curriculum or program of leadership development. Ethics is neither a luxury nor a hurdle to be cleared. It is central to decision-making and leadership itself. In his book Ethics as Practice, explains that ethics, like medicine, is a practical art.

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