please read the article  and discuss reasons why KODAK failed as a company .. 

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Making sense of change management chapter 3 – organizational change

Trinity Western University

LDRS 420

Instructor: Stephen Liang

Organizational Change

We will be addressing organizational change in 3 sections:

How organizations really work;

Models and approaches to organizational change; and

Summary and conclusions.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 94-95.

How Organizations Really Work

Gareth Morgan (1986) identifies eight organizational metaphors: (p.109)

Machines; *

Organisms; *

Brains;

Cultures;

Political systems; *

Psychic prisons;

Flux and transformations; and *

Instruments of domination.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 95-104.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

See Table 3.1 Four different approaches to the change process (p.97-98)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 95-104.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as machines. (p. 98-99)

Key beliefs are:

Each employee should have only one line manager;

Labour should be divided into specific roles;

Each individual should be managed by objectives;

Teams represent no more than the summation of individual efforts;

Management should control and there should be employee discipline.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 98-99.

How Organizations Really Work

Organization as machines. (p. 98-99) (con’t)

This leads to the following assumptions about organizational change:

The organization can be changed to an agreed end state by those in positions of authority.

There will be resistance, and this needs to be managed.

Change can be executed well if it is well planned and well controlled.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 98-99.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as political systems. (p. 99-100)

Key beliefs are:

You can’t stay out of organizational politics: you’re already in it.

Building support for your approach is essential if you want to make anything happen.

You need to know who is powerful, and who they are close to.

There is an important political map that overrides the published organizational structure.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 99-100.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as political systems. (p. 99-100)

Key beliefs are: (con’t)

Coalitions between individuals are more important than work teams.

The most important decisions in an organization concern the allocation of resources, that is: who gets what, and these are reached through bargaining, negotiating and vying for position.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 99-100.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as political systems. (p. 99-100)

Key beliefs are: (con’t)

Coalitions between individuals are more important than work teams.

The most important decisions in an organization concern the allocation of resources, that is: who gets what, and these are reached through bargaining, negotiating and vying for position.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 99-100.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as political systems. (p. 99-100) (con’t)

This leads to the following assumptions about organizational change:

The change will not work unless it’s supported by a powerful person.

The wider the support for this change, the better.

It is important to understand the political map, and to understand who will be winners and losers as a result of this change.

Positive strategies include creating new coalitions and renegotiating issues.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 99-100.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as organisms. (p. 100-102)

Key beliefs are:

There is no ‘one best way’ to design or manage an organization.

The flow of information between different parts of the systems and its environment is key to the organization’s success.

It is important to maximize the fit between individual, team and organizational needs.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 100-102.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as organisms. (p. 100-102) (con’t)

This leads to the following assumptions about organizational change:

Changes are made only in response to changes in the external environment (rather than using an internal focus).

Individual and groups need to be psychologically aware of the need for change in order to adapt.

The response to a change in the environment can be designed and worked towards.

Participation and psychological support are necessary strategies for success.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 100-102.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as flux and transformation. (p. 102-103)

Key beliefs are:

Order naturally emerges out of chaos.

Organizations have a natural capacity to self-renew.

Organizations life is not governed by the rules of cause and effect.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 102-103.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as flux and transformation. (p. 102-103)

Key beliefs are: (con’t)

Key tensions are important in the emergence of new ways of doing things.

The formal organizational structure (teams, hierarchies) only represents one of many dimensions of organizational life.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 102-103.

How Organizations Really Work (con’t)

Organization as flux and transformation. (p. 102-103)

This leads to the following assumptions about organizational change:

Change cannot be managed. It emerges.

Managers are not outside the systems they manage. They are part of the whole environment.

Tensions and conflicts are an important feature of emerging change.

Managers act as enablers. They enable people to exchange views and focus on significant differences.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 102-103.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change

See Table 3.2 Models of change and their associated metaphors, p. 105.

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 105.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Lewin’s (1951) three step model: organism, machine (p. 106-109)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 106-109.

Stage 1

Stage One – Unfreeezing: creating the motivation to change

Stage Two – Learning new concepts and new meaning to old concepts

Stage 3

Stage Three – Refreezing: Internalizing new concepts and meanings.

Stage 2

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Bullock and Batten’s (1985) planned change: machine (p. 109-110)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 109-110.

1

exploration

2

planning

4

integration

3

action

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Kotter’s (1995) eight steps: machine, political, organism (p. 110-112)

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=kotter’s+8+step+change+model&qpvt=kotter%27s+8+step+change+model&FORM=IGRE#view=detail&id=4AD8FCA772BA250093A6FABF2003E60CA5CB51DC&selectedIndex=10 Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 110-112.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Eckhard and Harris’ (1987) change formula: organism (p. 112-114)

A x B x D > X

Three factors must be present for meaningful organizational change to take place. These factors are: A = Dissatisfaction with how things are now; B = Vision of what is possible; D = Practicality of the change (minimal risk and disruption) X = Resistance

then change is possible.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formula_for_Change Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 112-114.

D = First, concrete steps that can be taken towards the vision; if the product of these three factors is greater than

(change to) D = Practicality of the change (minimal risk and disruption).

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Eckhard and Harris’ (1987) change formula: organism (p. 112-114)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 112-114.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Nader and Tushman’s (1997) congruence model: political, organism (p. 114-118)

http://nonxuppmesvim.blog.com/2011/11/08/nadler-tushman/ Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making Sense of Change Management (3rd edition ed.). New Delhi, India: Kogan Page Limited. P. 114-118.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Bridges and Bridge’s (1991) managing transitions: machine, organism, flux and transformation (p. 118-121)

http://www.strategies-for-managing-change.com/support-files/williambridgesmanagingtransitions.pdf Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 118-121.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Bridges and Bridge’s (1991) managing transitions: machine, organism, flux and transformation (p. 118-121)

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 118-121.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Colin Carnall’s (1990) change management model: political, organism (p. 121-122)

http://pure.au.dk/portal-asb-student/files/40655497/Strategic_Change_Management_and_the_Use_of_Internal_Communication.pdf Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 121-122.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Senge et al. (1999): systemic: political, organism, flux and transformation (p. 123-126)

The Dance of change: Catalyst and counter pressures

http://elearnspace.org/Articles/systemic_impact.htm Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 123-126.

Models of and Approaches to Organizational Change (con’t)

Stacey and Shaw’s (2001) complex responsive processes: political, flux and transformation (p. 126-128)

http://qiblog.blogspot.ca/2006/05/how-to-manage-complex-responsive.html Retrieved on: 17-Mar-2014

Ref: Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making Sense of Change Management (4th ed.). Croydon, Great Britain: Kogan Page Limited. p. 126-128.

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