All the info is in the doc along with the pervious assignments and the PDF book to help u better understanding the task.
Travel Log Entries
|22||June||20||12||30||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||20||16||30||Cannon Beach, OR 97145||Cannon Beach||OR||Travel||0||0|
|22||June||20||18||45||Cannon Beach, OR 97146||Cannon Beach||OR||Dining||0||0|
|22||June||20||23||0||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||21||6||30||7200 NW Front Ave||Portland||OR||Work||0||0|
|22||June||21||14||10||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||21||15||30||7487 N Ida Ave||Portland||OR||Dining||1||0|
|22||June||21||17||0||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||22||13||30||8930 SE Sunnyside Rd||Clackamas||OR||Shopping||1||0|
|22||June||22||17||30||7200 NW Front Ave||Portland||OR||Work||1||0|
|22||June||23||1||0||7201 NW Front Ave||Portland||OR||Dining||1||0|
|22||June||23||7||40||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||23||17||30||7200 NW Front Ave||Portland||OR||Work||1||0|
|22||June||23||1||30||7201 NW Front Ave||Portland||OR||Dining||1||0|
|22||June||24||7||50||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||24||18||0||1818 SW 4th Ave||Portland||OR||Friend’s Home||1||0|
|22||June||24||23||20||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||24||10||0||1875 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||School||1||0|
|22||June||24||13||0||1717 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Dining||1||0|
|22||June||25||19||30||1844 SW Morrison St||Portland||OR||Entertainment||1||0|
|22||June||25||21||40||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
|22||June||26||12||0||1030 SW Jefferson St||Portland||OR||Shopping||1||0|
|22||June||26||12||40||1511 SW Park Ave||Portland||OR||Home||1||0|
Data Entry Guidelines
|When entering Addresses, please remember to enter as follows:|
|Addressses:||Street Address, Street Name, Street Type, Street Direction (if needed)|
|eg:||506 SW Mill Street|
|1 N Center Court|
|*Note – do not include apartment or unit numbers, or landmarks in lieu of addresses.*|
|Intersections:||Street 1 Name, Type, Direction @ Street 2 Name, Type, Direction|
|eg:||SW Mill Street @ SW 6th Avenue|
|N Center Court @ N Winning Way|
|If you do not know or don’t want to share the address, enter a nearby intersection.|
|When entering data within “Hour_24”, please enter a number between 0 (midnight) and 23 (11pm)|
|0||when something occurred between 12am and 12:59am|
|12||when something occurred between 12pm and 12:59pm|
|13||when something occurred between 1pm and 1:59pm|
|23||when something occurred between 11pm and 11:59pm|
|etc||using 24-hour time conversions|
|When entering data within “Minute”, please enter a number between 0 and 60|
|When entering Location, please type one of the following:|
|Home||when you return to your current primary residence|
|Work||when you go to your work, or make a stop related to your work|
|School||when you go to a location for your school, or go to the school of one of your family members|
|Travel||when you make a stop for travel-related activities – gas stations, parking lots, park and rides, transit stops (bus, max, streetcar, etc)|
|Family’s Home||when you stop to visit a family member’s home|
|Friend’s Home||when you stop to visit a friend’s home|
|Entertainment||when you stop somewhere for entertainment purposes (movie, bar, concert, sporting event, etc)|
|Shopping||when you are at a store or mall to purchase groceries or items|
|Dining||when you are at a food serving establishment for coffee or meals|
|Other||all other activities|
|When entering data within “Routine”, please enter a 1 or a 0, as follows:|
|1||when this activity is part of what you consider your normal routine for the given day and time|
|0||when this activity is outside of your normal routine for the typical day/time (for example, if you are working from home when you would normally be in an office, if you’re ill, if you’re going to a new or rare appointment, if you’re somewhere you don’t frequently go)|
|When entering data within “Hypothtical”, please enter a 1 or a 0, as follows:|
|1||when this activity is a hypothetical example of a typical weekend or weekday routine that I would follow, if I were not currently experiencing dramatically different routines|
|0||when this is reflective of my current routine|
|· Should I record my home address every morning that I wake up?|
|o No – your very first entry will be the location where you woke up on Monday but after this point, you only make an entry when you change locations. Your final entry for each day will be the location where you go to sleep that evening (home, a friend’s home, etc). Your first entry each subsequent day will be the first place that you travel to that morning (a coffee shop, work, PSU, etc.)|
|· I didn’t leave my house on Saturday – how do I enter this into my Travel Log?|
|o If you arrive home on Friday night, and don’t leave until Sunday morning, then your travel log will have no entry at all for Saturday. You only make an entry when you change locations, so if you stay put, you don’t need to record. If you do not leave home for more than one day in the two-week period of data collection, please make a note when uploading your assignment on D2L (D2L will provide a comments box) so that I recognize that these days were intentionally left out.|
|· Can I submit my assignment prior to Sunday at 11:30?|
|o Yes – absolutely! If you’ve arrived home for the day at 2pm on Sunday of Week 2, for example, you can record your final entry and submit at that time. However, unless you’ve got some extenuating circumstances, please do not guess at your daily stops throughout this assignment, but record each one after they occur. Often, we forget about the little stops for coffee or mundane activities, but these are important parts of our routines.|
|· I’m uncomfortable providing some of this information – what can I do?|
|o The data that you will be submitting for this class will not be linked to your name, and will not be mapped in a way that can identify individual movement patterns. That said, you are under no obligation to submit information that you’re not comfortable sharing. If you don’t feel comfortable providing any of the requested fields, contact me as early as possible (prior to Wednesday of Week 1) so that we can discuss how you can adjust the information you are submitting in a way that will not compromise the overall group travel patterns. Potential solutions may be to record locations as nearby intersections rather than specific addresses, omitting identifiers, or interviewing someone else, for example. Please ensure you have reached out if this applies to you.|
|· I’m socially isolating and/or have made fewer than 14 stops this week- what can I do?|
|o If you are not straying far from home right now, this is fine! You should not change your current activity levels for this assignment. However, if your travel log contains fewer than 14 stops this week (as it would if you are remaining mostly at home), please add on one “hypothetical” weekday, and one “hypothetical” weekend – this means I’d like you to think up an average weekday in June. You can think of this time last year, or last week if you were travelling differently, to use as an example. Record the place you would typically expect to wake up, and try your best to record the stops that you would make on a typical weekday, and on a typical weekend. You may also interview a family member, friend or peer from outside this class to record their typical activities in place of your own hypothetical component. If you record hypothetical activities, please be sure to label them as such within the data.|
|· I have other questions – what do I do?|
|o e-mail me at !|
Week 1 Discussion
Introductions and Sketch Maps:
We paused within our course content to explore how we view our city. We used a tool called a sketch map, which aims to portray our cognitive map of our surroundings. When reflecting on the sketch map that you produced, consider the following questions:
· What did you notice?
· What areas had the most detail?
· What areas have the least detail?
· If you drew Portland, did you include PSU?
· Did you include downtown?
· Did you include any areas that you haven’t been to?
You may upload your sketch map if you feel comfortable doing so, but you are not required to do so.
Aim to respond in about 300 words – you may use more if needed, but try to use 300 as your minimum word count. Aim to write in complete sentences, being mindful of paragraph structure and spelling. Use in-text sources if needed (you are not required to rely on sources, though, particularly for this week). I request attention to writing details because a considerable portion of your grade is linked to writing assignments. Writing takes practice, thought and effort – the more time you spend consciously considering how to clearly present your thoughts, the easier it will come.
Portland is located in the U.S state of Oregon. Looking into the cities in Oregon, Portland is one of the largest cities. It is subdivided into various sections: Southwest Portland, North Portland, Northeast Portland, Southeast Portland, Northwest Portland, and South Portland, and the area has a population of 652,503 from the census conducted in 2020, making it among the 25th most populated city in the U.S. The area has a climate that favors the growth of crops such as roses in warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. From the sketch map that I have sketched, I have noticed that most people are densely populated within the towns, which is because within the towns, there are opportunities for jobs, and many people work the town. The areas with the most details are the urban areas within the towns, for they have a lot of buildings for business, settlements houses, administration blocks, and other recreation sites.
I have also included PSU (Portland State University) in my sketch map. This university is not just a matter of being in a classroom and reading textbooks but also has plenty of art to enjoy, beverages and bites, and quaint boutiques to peruse. In national universities, it is ranked #288. The sketch is inclusive of downtown Portland. The city’s public bus system, Portland streetcar, and the public light rail serve the Portland downtown. The downtown has hotels that can exceed 35 hotels, shopping areas, restaurants, and Portland activities such as museums and theatres. Downtown has many things to do, including visiting parks, sports arenas, and museums. I have included areas I have not visited, such as Southern Portland. The main reason as to why I have not been to this place is because I have no business to attend there. I have been just hearing of the place but have not landed there.
The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. This fully revised and expanded edition of the world’s first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential school of criminological thought covers a wide range of topics, including:
• the origins of environmental criminology; • the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory,
geometry of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime;
• the practical application of environmental criminology; • an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; and • policy implications for the practice of crime prevention.
As well as these popular topics, Martin Andresen also discusses a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. New to the second edition are chapters on empirical support for the various models of crime prevention covered and on the growing literature on “the journey to crime”.
This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighborhood problems, so it is also perfect for courses on geography of crime, crime analysis, and, indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.
Martin A. Andresen is Associate Professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University. His research areas are in spatial crime analysis, crime and place, geography of crime, environmental criminology, and applied spatial statistics and geographical information analysis. Within these research areas he has published three edited volumes, two books, and more than 100 refereed journal articles and contributions to edited volumes.
“In Environmental Criminology, Martin Andresen provides perhaps the most readable summary of what is known in the field. But he also thoughtfully considers where the field has been and where it is going, providing one of the most sophisticated descriptions of environmental criminology to date. This means that this book will be equally useful to students and scholars, and should be read by anyone interested in this area of study.”
David Weisburd, Walter E Meyer Professor of Law and Criminal Justice,
Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Distinguished Professor, Department of Criminology, Law and Society,
George Mason University, USA
“With new chapters on the journey to crime and the effects of crime prevention, this is an expanded update to a valuable reference on environmental criminology. Replete with examples from his Vancouver research, Andresen does not bombard the reader with dense academic prose, yet the book contains a precise overview of the latest literature and research in the area. It will be a valuable resource for students everywhere.”
Jerry Ratcliffe, Professor of Criminal Justice,
Temple University, Philadelphia, USA
“Environmental criminology is the most useful and exciting approach to understanding and doing something about crime. Martin Andresen has produced an exceptionally lucid and thorough text for this area.”
John Eck, Professor of Criminal Justice,
University of Cincinnati, USA
Evolution, Theory, and Practice
Martin A. Andresen
Second edition published 2020 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN
and by Routledge 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2020 Martin A. Andresen
The right of Martin A. Andresen to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
First edition published by Routledge 2014 Second edition published by Routledge 2020
British Librar y Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Librar y of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Andresen, Martin A., author. Title: Environmental criminology : evolution, theory, and practice /
Martin A. Andresen. Description: Second edition. | Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY :
Routledge, 2020. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2019028189 (print) | LCCN 2019028190 (ebook) |
ISBN 9781138316980 (hardback) | ISBN 9781138317017 (paperback) | ISBN 9780429455391 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Crime—Environmental aspects. | Criminology. Classification: LCC HV6150 .A63 2020 (print) | LCC HV6150
(ebook) | DDC 364.01—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019028189 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019028190
ISBN: 978-1-138-31698-0 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-31701-7 (pbk) ISBN: 978-0-429-45539-1 (ebk)
Typeset in NewBaskerville by Apex CoVantage, LLC
For my two children.
List of figures ix List of tables xiii Preface to the second edition xiv Preface to the first edition xv Acknowledgments xvii
PART I Early work on the ecology of crime 1
1 The beginnings of the geography of crime 3
2 Social disorganization theory 11
PART II Theories within environmental criminology 29
3 Routine activity theory 33
4 Geometry of crime 49
5 Rational choice theory 71
6 Pattern theory of crime 91
7 Crime prevention: theory 99
PART III The practice of environmental criminology 125
8 Crime prevention: implementation, evaluation, and empirical evidence 129
9 Crime measurement 141
10 Spatial issues with crime analysis 172
11 Hotspots of crime 194
12 The temporal dimension of crime 209
13 Environmental criminology and the crime drop 236
14 Geographic profiling 252
15 (Near-) repeat victimization 266
16 Journey to crime 287
17 Crime and place 303
1.1 Property crime rate per 100,000, France, 1825–1830 4 1.2 Violent crime rate per 100,000, France, 1825–1830 5 2.1 Concentric zone model 14 2.2 Nonlinear relationship between population change and
juvenile delinquency 17 2.3 The causal model of Sampson and Groves (1989) 24 II.1 The evolution of environmental criminology 30 3.1a Property and violent crime rates for Canada and the
United States, 1960–2011, property crime 35 3.1b Property and violent crime rates for Canada and the
United States, 1960–2011, violent crime 35 4.1 A simple search by an offender 55 4.2 Distance decay and search intensity 56 4.3 A complex search by an offender 57 4.4a Strong versus weak directionality, strong directionality 63 4.4b Strong versus weak directionality, weak directionality 63 4.5 Directionality and the protractor method 64 4.6 Directionality bias versus random paths 65 5.1 Making the rational choice 73 5.2 Initial involvement in crime 79 5.3 The criminal event 81 5.4 Desistance from crime 83 6.1 The general criminal process 93 6.2 The general criminal process and activities 94 6.3 The general criminal process, activities, and motivation 96 7.1 C. Ray Jeffery’s crime prevention through environmental
design 107 7.2 Oscar Newman’s crime prevention through urban design 113 8.1 Attempting to measure spatial displacement, before and after 137 9.1 Traditional versus modified homicide rates, Canada,
9.2a Resident and ambient populations, Vancouver, 2001, resident population 149
9.2b Resident and ambient populations, Vancouver, 2001, ambient population 149
9.3 Daytime population attractiveness, Vancouver, 2001 150 9.4a Resident- and ambient-based violent crime rates,
Vancouver, 2001, resident-based violent crime rate 152 9.4b Resident- and ambient-based violent crime rates,
Vancouver, 2001, ambient-based violent crime rate 152 9.5a Resident and ambient populations, Vancouver, 2016,
resident population 154 9.5b Resident and ambient populations, Vancouver, 2016,
ambient population 154 9.6a Theft from vehicle rate per 1000, Vancouver, 2016,
resident-based rate 156 9.6b Theft from vehicle rate per 1000, Vancouver, 2016,
ambient-based rate 156 9.7a Burglary crime rate and location quotient, Vancouver,
2001, burglary crime rate 161 9.7b Burglary crime rate and location quotient, Vancouver,
2001, burglary location quotient 161 10.1 Spatial autocorrelation 179 10.2a LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, automotive theft,
census tracts 184 10.2b LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, automotive theft,
dissemination areas 184 10.3a LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, burglary,
census tracts 185 10.3b LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, burglary,
dissemination areas 185 10.4a LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, violent crime,
census tracts 187 10.4b LISA classifications, Vancouver, 2001, violent crime,
dissemination areas 187 10.5a Crime rate and cartogram maps, Vancouver, 2001, violent
crime, choropleth map 190 10.5b Crime rate and cartogram maps, Vancouver, 2001, violent
crime, cartogram 190 11.1 Kernel density 197 11.2a Hotspots, no hotspot 200 11.2b Hotspots, linear hotspot 200 11.2c Hotspots, point hotspot 201 11.2d Hotspots, area hotspot 201
11.3a Kernel density, single versus dual kernel, single kernel 202 11.3b Kernel density, single versus dual kernel, dual kernel 203 12.1 Aoristic analysis 211 12.2 Temporal constraint theory 213 12.3a Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
all crime 219 12.3b Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
assault 219 12.3c Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
burglary 220 12.3d Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
robbery 220 12.3e Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
sexual assault 221 12.3f Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
theft from vehicle 221 12.3g Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
theft 222 12.3h Intra-week temporal patterns of crime, Vancouver, 2001,
theft of vehicle 222 12.4a Spatial variations in weekly crime patterns, assault 224 12.4b Spatial variations in weekly crime patterns, theft from
vehicle 224 12.5a Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, all crime 227 12.5b Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, assault 227 12.5c Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, burglary 228 12.5d Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, robbery 228 12.5e Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, sexual assault 229 12.5f Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, theft 229 12.5g Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, theft from
vehicle 230 12.5h Monthly trends in crime, Vancouver, 2001, theft of vehicle 230 12.6 Spatial variations in seasonal crime patterns 231 13.1a Property and violent crime rates for Canada and the
United States, 1960–2011, property crime 237 13.1b Property and violent crime rates for Canada and the
United States, 1960–2011, violent crime 237 14.1a Geographic profile, two-dimensional representation
(geoprofile) 256 14.1b Geographic profile, three-dimensional representation
(jeopardy surface) 256 15.1 Housing homogeneity and vulnerability for near-repeat
16.1 The age – distance to crime curve, by single year of age, all crime types aggregated 292
16.2 Mobility polygons, classification difficulties 297 16.3 Mobility triangles, difficulties with neighborhoods 299 17.1 Lorenz curve and the Gini coefficient 314
7.1 The Primary-Secondary-Tertiary model of crime prevention 100 7.2 Ronald Clarke’s situational crime prevention 120 9.1 Percent of self-reported victimizations reported to the police 143 12.1 Counts of crime types by day of the week, Vancouver, 2001 218 15.1 International repeat victimization, International Crime
Victims Survey, 1988–1996 268 15.2 An example of Knox test output 276 16.1 Distance to crime-by-crime type, kilometers, all ages 289 16.2 Mobility triangle classifications, Normandeau (1968) 296 17.1 Crime concentration at the street segment, Ottawa and
Vancouver, Canada 312
Since the publication of the first edition of this book, the field of envi- ronmental criminology has grown substantially. There have been advance- ments in the testing of theory, important research in the area of crime prevention, as well as new and exciting developments not only in the appli- cation of environmental criminology to academic settings but also the real world. Though not all this research has a place in this textbook, I have incorporated a lot of this new work in this second edition. In particular, I have updated each chapter with any new and interesting developments and added two new chapters.
This new edition has benefited from five reviewers who took their time to provide feedback on the first edition and my proposal for a second edition. I would like to thank them for taking their time to do so. I have incorpo- rated as many of their comments as possible, including the use of gender- neutral language. I appreciate all of their comments and believe they have substantially improved the quality of this book. In addition to the reviewers of the proposal for a second edition, I have also consulted the book reviews I have come across, spoken with one of the authors of a review, and taken that information into consideration for changes made in this edition.
The only regret I have to state here is that I had one student fall asleep in my environmental criminology class since the publication of the first edi- tion! This is still a pretty good record for teaching this course for 13 years, but I feel I had to acknowledge this event given my claim in the first edition. This student claimed that they worked a graveyard shift and this class was first thing in the morning, but it still hurt.
Martin A. Andresen School of Criminology and Criminal Justice
Griffith Criminology Institute Griffith University
Southport, Queensland Australia
Preface to the second edition Preface to the second editionPreface to the second edition
The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. The set of theories, and subse- quent applications, that we know as environmental criminology today began in the early 1970s. This textbook includes two chapters on the early work in spatial criminology in order to set the stage for environmental criminology – environmental criminology did not emerge from a vacuum. This is followed by a section of chapters covering the seminal theories within environmental criminology: routine activity theory, geometry of crime, rational choice theory, and pattern theory of crime. Each of these chapters is written in the same format that considers the metaphysics of each theory (what is assumed to be true),
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