Economics Of Disaster Management And Climate Change Adaptation Economics Essay ECON 3071 Economics of Disaster Management and Climate Change Adaptation Consider the ECLAC Methodology on Assessing the Economic Impact of Climate Change and Evaluate the Impact of Hurricane Tomas on HAITI Group Members: Amyana Harripersad 810004597 Ana Neehall 810001579 Damian Morean 810005519 2013 Contents INTRODUCTION In order to assess the economic impact of climate change, the linkage between climate change and disasters needs to be defined. Climate change results in extreme weather events which, in the future, are likely to increase the number and scale of disasters (United Nations, 2008). The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) proposes a methodology to estimate in monetary terms, the impact of disasters on the society, economy and environment of the affected country. This methodology is published in the ‘Handbook for Estimating the Socio- Economic and Environmental Effects of Disasters (2003). With respect to the economic sectors a country, this handbook provides a methodology which aims to assess the damages to the agriculture, trade and industry and tourism sectors, all of which are deemed to be the productive sectors of the economy. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order SUMMARY OF ECLAC METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE ON THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTOR AND TOURISM SECTOR According to the ECLAC handbook, the agriculture sector comprises of agriculture, livestock, fisheries and commercial forestry. In order to assess the damage done to this sector, it is proposed that the agricultural specialist abide by the following methodology. Firstly, a comprehensive description of all the damages as a result of the disaster must be recorded. This includes the damages to crops, plantations, physical infrastructure, working capital, machinery and livestock. Such information should be gathered from as many sources as possible, for example, field visits, local officials, farmers and the representatives of agriculture related companies. Secondly, the damages have to be categorized according to direct damages and indirect losses and then quantified. Direct damages include loss of farmland, damage to agricultural infrastructure and equipment, production losses and losses of stocks. Indirect damages refer to the decrease in agriculture production as a result of the direct damages caused by the disaster. For example, the loss of future crops due to the destruction of the soil and the decrease in fisheries due to polluted waters. The total damage is then calculated by summing direct damages and indirect losses. Other agriculture related aspects need to then be considered such as loss of jobs and income and food and export balances, that is, whether there is enough food to meet the needs of the population and sufficient agricultural exports. It is necessary that the sectoral output of the agriculture sector be adequately recorded. This involves describing the production and prices of each agricultural product under normal and post disaster conditions. Also to be included in the damage assessment of the agricultural sector is the loss associated with the activities of the of the backyard/ subsistence economy and the impact of the disaster on the environment such as changes in environmental for example, carbon sequestration, water flow regulation and fishery habitat that result from losses of forests and mangroves. The trade and industry sectors comprise of large, medium and small enterprises which generate value added and are more capital intensive than the agricultural sector. The handbook indicates that small enterprises are more vulnerable to the effects of disasters however; most enterprises in this sector are usually covered by insurance. In order to assess the damage done to this sector by a disaster, the sector is divided into the manufacturing and commercial sector. For the manufacturing sector both qualitative and quantitative information about the affected areas, the magnitude of the disaster, the number of enterprises impacted on, and the personnel employed are needed to be described and recorded. This data is derived from sources such as industrial statistics, trade surveys, field visits, ministries and planning offices. The value of direct damages to assets is then determined by studying factors such as the replacement cost, and the cost of reconstruction. Direct damages include buildings, facilities, machinery, equipment, furniture, vehicles and stocks of inventories. In the context of the manufacturing sector indirect losses refer to the decrease in production due to the temporary delay in activities. After the total damage is determined by summing the direct damages and the indirect losses, the macroeconomic effects are derived. This involves determining the main effect on macroeconomic variables such as GDP and balance of payments. A list of all the priority activities that need to be done to restore the manufacturing sector concludes assessing the damage done to the manufacturing sector. In the same way, the methodology for assessing the damage to the commercial sector follows a similar procedure. However, the commercial sector comprises of establishments such as supermarkets, gas stations, malls etc. Also, it must be noted, that indirect losses are determined by the profits that were not accrued as a result of the disaster. For both the commercial and manufacturing sectors, the negative effect of the disaster on the environment and on employment and income must also be included. In the Caribbean, assessing the impact of a disaster on the tourism sector is of vast economic importance because of the high dependence these islands have on this sector for foreign currency earnings and employment. Furthermore, tourism is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change as many tourist attractions evolve around the environment. The ECLAC handbook proposes that the assessment of the tourism sector be conducted by a tourism specialist who begins by collecting information from about the pre and post disaster situation with regards to tourism. This information is collected from domestic sources such as tourism surveys, hotels, tour operators and port and airport authorities. International sources include international organizations such as the World Tourism Organization. Like the previous methodologies, damages and losses are then estimated. The direct damages to the tourism sector are determined by looking at the damages to assets utilized by tourist such as hotels, restaurants and other tourist facilities. Special care has to be taken to avoid double counting as it is easy to include these assets in the commercial sector. With respect to determining indirect losses, factors such as the cleanup costs and the increase in insurance premiums to hotel and restaurant owners also have to be taken into consideration. Subsequently, the macroeconomic effects need to be determined. This includes the effects on economic activity and finance such as future losses of tourism revenue and the effects on investments, employment and women. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order EVALUATION OF IMPACT These three sectors previously identified from the ECLAC Methodology, will now be reviewed bearing in mind the impacts of Hurricane Tomas on Haiti, as well as a brief summary of the other impacts of the Hurricane. IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL SECTOR The agricultural sector is affected by but not limited to climate change effects such as flooding, droughts and frosts. Tropical storms and hurricanes also have the potential to damage livestock and crops but usually the impact is relatively less than the brunt borne by infrastructure. It is also possible for mudslides to affect this sector. Because of the volume of natural disasters afflicting Haiti in such a small space of time, the effects are worsened as they have not fully recovered from previous events. These include the 7.0 and 6.1 earthquakes as well as a cholera epidemic, all occurring in the year 2010. Table 1 shows the share of agricultural employment in total employment. Many persons living in Haiti earn between $1 and $2 daily. Because job opportunities are rare, and many persons are uneducated, many choose to fall back onto agriculture as a source of income as well as to provide for their families. Table 1: Share of agricultural employment in total employment (2000) Country Agricultural Employment (’000) Share in Total employment (%) Haiti 2 156 62.3 Source: FAO 2007, Table 1. According to the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) World factbook, Haiti’s population stands at approximately 9.89 million persons. From the data we can clearly see that a meager figure is employed in agriculture. The CIA also reports that inclusive of small scale subsistence farming, almost two-fifths of Haitians are dependent on agriculture. While the country is vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, its vulnerability is intensified by the country’s widespread deforestation. Although Hurricane Tomas was not as bad as expected, there were still substantial damage occurring. The UN reported that the most severely affected sector was agriculture where crops were destroyed, fields flooded, and livestock were affected. Destroyed crops would mean both a fall in the amount available for exports as well as less supplies for locals to eat. Flooded fields destroyed potential earnings. According to the Handbook, in addition to drowning of livestock, animals too can undergo trauma from these events and could result in lower production rates from them. (For example, weight loss and temporary fall in productive capacity) Specifically, the Non-Government Organization (NGO), ACTED [1] , reported that pea buds and flowers that would have soon become peapods were destroyed. And results from the first assessment reported by ACTED stated that thirty to forty percent of the potential peas harvest was gone. After the Hurricane, the World Health Organization, WHO, stated that they had pre-positioned emergency supplies prior to hurricane season and were able to provide food to many who had nothing to eat. They also made arrangements for high energy biscuits to be distributed to local shelters etc when they become accessible, that is, after the flood waters went down and as such, eased the effects of lack of food supplies in the country. IMPACT ON TRADE AND INDUSTRY SECTOR Table 2: Profile of Top Agricultural Export of Haiti Country Top agricultural export Share in total agricultural exports (average 2001- 2003) Percentage of production Exported (average 2001- 2003) Percentage shipped to main market (2002) Main market Haiti Mangoes 25.7 3.2 96 USA Source: FAO 2007, Table 1. Haiti is ranked 147th among all the countries in terms of exports which sums to 12%. Their main commodities of export include mangoes, which is their top agricultural export as shown in Table 2, coffee, cocoa, oil, apparel and light manufacturing [2] . Ranked 165th among all the countries by exports, Haiti is estimated to earn USD$785 Million in exports. This figure is significantly lower than their imports which sums to approximately USD$2.64 Billion and comprises mainly of food, raw materials, manufactured goods and fuel. Haiti has a preferential agreement with the United States who currently imports 83.9% of Haiti’s Exports and thus ensures them a market to export to. As it stands, many persons are still displaced or living under tents and therefore a struggling each day simply to live. Focus is placed more on finding food as it is very scarce and expensive given the rampant poverty plaguing Haiti which leaves little incentives for persons to rebuild the national economy. Haiti lacks the funds necessary to rebuild much less improve their living standards so as to reduce their vulnerability to these natural disasters. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order IMPACT ON TOURISM SECTOR Prior to Hurricane Tomas in 2010, Haiti was trying to rebuild after the effects of other Natural disasters mentioned (Earthquakes and Cholera Epidemic). It is for reasons like these that the Tourism sector is very negligible in Haiti. In fact, the UNEC [3] for Latin America and the Caribbean revealed that approximately 2.5% of Haiti’s GDP was contributed from the Tourism Sector. However, in recent times, Haiti is seeking to develop this sector by looking for inspiration from Aruba [4] . They recognize that they possess the sun, sea and sand elements which are crucial for the tourism sector in the Caribbean and are seeking investments from the private sector to exacerbate this prospect. These efforts have been initiated by the five-star credited Royal Oasis and their flourish of new hotel construction in Port-au-Prince. This is not altogether running smoothly however, as countries such as Canada and the United States have renewed their travel warnings to Haiti given the country’s security situation [5] . CRITIQUE OF METHODOLOGY The ECLAC Handbook for Estimating the Socio Economic and Environmental Effects of Natural Disasters, provides an in depth methodology to measure the social, economic and environmental impacts of a disaster on the affected country. However, there are several criticisms of this methodology which can weaken the credibility of the overall assessment of the impact of these disasters. Firstly, the foundation of this methodology is based on the assumption that there is sufficient, reliable and accurate data. After a disaster, such information may be limited due to the adverse effects of the disaster. For example the services of dependable information sources such as government agencies and other administrative organizations may be impaired, thereby limiting the access to statistics and other necessary specifics. Furthermore, the specialists involved in conducting the assessment are required to quickly evaluate the reliability and validity of their sources in order to avoid long lag periods and complete their assessment within the required time frame. This may be difficult to do after a country is disrupted by a disastrous event. The ECLAC Handbook proposes that there are three stages following a disaster: (1) Emergency, (2) Rehabilitation and recovery and (3) Reconstruction. The emergency stage occurs immediately after the event and is concerned with rescuing individuals, evacuation and providing relief to affected persons. The second stage focuses on rectifying damages to property and services and the reconstruction period deals with restoring the country to some degree of normalcy. The assessment activities in this methodology seek to begin after the emergency phase. No specific time frame is stated for the duration of these stages therefore it is possible that these stages overlap. Additionally, if the timing of entry of the ECLAC personnel is not precise, the estimation of the impact may be skewed. For example, if too much time has passed before the evaluation begins; the impact of the disaster may be understated in the assessment. Due to the high degree of meticulousness of the methodology, when conducting the assessment, special care has to be taken in order to avoid double counting. That is, damage recorded in one sector cannot be included in another sector because this will overestimate the impact of the disaster. For example, it may be difficult to distinguish between socio economic and economic impacts. As such, some damages may be counted twice. Lastly, many indirect losses may not be evident at the time when the assessment is conducted. This will result in these losses being omitted from the assessment, and consequently in an underestimation of the impact of the disaster. Such is possible in the event of a ‘slowly evolving disaster’. Also, due to the time constraint when assessing the impact, it may be difficult to assign a monetary value to foreseeable indirect losses. For instance, due to blocks in channels of information as a result of the disaster, the prices of certain goods may not be available; therefore calculating the value of the indirect loss will be problematic. Furthermore, some indirect effects may be both difficult to identify and quantify. Such effects include, human suffering, insecurity and mental trauma as result of the disaster. VULNERABILITY/ RESILIENCE PROFILE The Caribbean region can be recognized as an area with a high propensity to hazards and disasters, both rapid onset and slow. On an annual basis, the hurricane wreaks havoc for the region’s members especially those members on the outer Atlantic Arch such as the Republic of Haiti which is being looked at. This hurricane season could lead to damages in human and economic capacity, disrupted economic activities, infrastructural damage and loss of human life, inter alia. However, the extent to which this impact pervades can be examined by the formulation of a vulnerability/ resilience profile for Haiti and this can help to elaborate further on how significant the impact of Hurricane Tomas was. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order A Vulnerability Analysis is a report that gives consideration to the significant elements in a country, including long and short term physical, social, environmental and economic processes, which augment the susceptibility of the country to the impact of hazards. It evaluates the extent to which the essential services and coping mechanism of the country are able to continually function. Earthquake On January 12th, 2010, Haiti was struck with a 7.0 magnitude earthquake which epicenter was in close proximity to the capital, Port au Prince. The earthquake destroyed or damaged the country’s infrastructure including the presidential palace, parliament, Port au Prince Cathedral, medical facilities, schools, businesses, roads and homes. Thousands were left homeless as nearly 1.6 million people were displaced. Deaths recorded stood at 220000 people with the Haitian government estimating 316000. Poor Building Codes and Standards Haiti lacked a national building code and so the method in which structures were built depended on the educational background and resources of the engineers responsible for the project. There was a rampant and blatant disregard for building codes (international codes), neglect for permits and disrespect for government inspectors who already possessed very little power to be counted as effective. These became common practice in Haiti especially given the high rate of homelessness (approximately 1.6 million people after the 2010 earthquake), in that persons viewed simply having a place of residence as more important than the integrity of the structure. Non-enforcement of building codes however has proven to be detrimental to Haiti in times of disaster. In an investigation done by Dieudonne Joachim, an investigative journalist for Le Nouvelliste, it was found that building code inspectors were greeted with hostility and little police support was offered. Closer to the root of these issues were the resources these officials possessed. According to Joachim, “municipalities lack the technical means and competent personnel to issue permits that would force construction workers to respect the building requirements” (International Center for Journalists). Few building permits were issued monthly as few permit requests were even made. The disregard for the codes linked directly to poverty levels, as persons who made on average $2 a day could not afford to build structures capable of withstanding natural hazard, exacerbated by the fact that the cost of these frequently ran into the hundreds of thousands of dollars Poverty According to the Human Development Index, Haiti was rated as the poorest country in the Americas and was ranked 161st overall. It possessed a MPI [6] of 0.299 for 2001 meaning that the situation faced by 2010 could have been worse or may have undergone little improvement. Approximately 80% of Haitians lived on less than USD$2 a day and the average Haitian ate one meager meal per day, which made Haiti the 3rd hungriest country in the world. Lack of Basic Facilities or Access to Facilities In terms of basic facilities, 70% of Haitians did not have access to electricity, 90% did not have access to running water or indoor plumbing with 4 million who were lacking safe water and 80% lacked adequate sanitation. Persons would have to find streams in order to acquire water for washing, cooking and other activities. These lacks of facilities helped to contribute to the cholera outbreak that occurred in October 2010, which then worsened dramatically as Hurricane Tomas mixed polluted bodies of water. Initially 183 deaths were recorded by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) but after Hurricane Tomas the Haitian Ministry of Health reported a death toll and 3333 and approximately 148800 persons infected by the disease. Unemployment According to the CIA World Factbook, Haiti’s unemployment rate stood at 40.6 by 2010 estimates, with there being widespread unemployment and underemployment as two thirds of the labor-force did not have formal employment. Low literacy levels Literacy in this case was defined as persons of age 15 and over who could read and write. According the CIA World Factbook, based on 2003 estimates, Haiti possessed a low literacy rate of 52.9. The situation has worsened where it is now approximated that two thirds of the population is illiterate. Most of Haiti’s primary schools were established and managed by communities or religious organizations. The enrollment rate stands at 67% but less than 30% were predicted to reach the sixth grade. Enrollment in secondary school stood at an exiguous 20%. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order High Population Density in the Capital Port au Prince is the largest city in Haiti and it is densely populated, with commercial districts in closer proximity to the sea and residential areas more inland. The city possessed a large number of slums and shantytowns making the population difficult to be determined but according to the Geonames Geographical Database it stood at 1,234,742. Port au Prince was also considered to be Haiti’s economic and educational hub and thus left the economy open to risks of decreased production and lower literacy rates. Port au Prince was already ravaged from the earthquake prior and was the home of one of the largest refugee camps. With its nearness to the sea, the battering it had already taken from the earthquake and the makeshift refugee camps, the capital was not ready for the severe flooding and strong winds from Hurricane Tomas. Health Prior to 2010, Haiti’s healthcare facilities had already felt the effects of chronic political and economic instability. In 2006, according to the Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, Haiti was pushed to the bottom of the World’s Bank ranking of health indicators due to deficient sanitation systems, poor nutrition and inadequate health facilities and services. Malnutrition, non-access to clean water and food insecurity were also significant problems. In 2006, Haiti ranked last in terms of health care spending in the western hemisphere, spending US$83 million annually. There were 25 physicians per 100,000 population meaning consistent shortages of trained personnel and hospital that lacked supplies. Most rural areas had no access to health services making then vulnerable to otherwise treatable diseases. Healthcare was unaffordable to the average Haitian due to high fees charged. Patients would be turned away at full hospitals or would have to give up treatment if they could no longer afford it. The maternal mortality rate was also the highest in the hemisphere. Due to the earthquake many health facilities were destroyed or rendered unusable and the overall health situation deteriorated. Even though the earthquake caused substantial health relief to pour into the country especially from Medecins Sans Frontieres (MFS), resources were still stretched. Politics From its inception Haiti was plagued by political instability. The country had suffered approximately 32 coup d’états by 2010. Before the events of 2010, the government had already inadequately represented the population. Haitian elections were marred with issues such as non-transparency, violence, non- consensus orientation and disregard for the rule of law. After the revolt in 2004 which led to the exile of President Jean Bertrand Aristide, and the election of Rene Preval in 2006 which was marred with opposition, the government was in a weak position. Haiti was ranked as the 146th most corrupt country in 2010. Climate Haiti has a tropical with two distinct seasons, the dry season (December to March) and the wet season (April to November). The eastern area of the country however is an exception to this as mountains block the trade winds, creating a semi- arid region. Due to the northeast trade winds the country regularly faces extreme weather conditions. Haiti has to contend with floods, storms, hurricanes and droughts among other hazards on a seasonal basis. Deforestation Deforestation has become endemic to Haiti due to prolonged agricultural exploitation. Under the plantation system there was intensive mono crop agriculture of cotton, tobacco, sugarcane and coffee. Later on came the extensive harvest of timber for exportation and the expansion of subsistence farming. There has been increased demand for charcoal and fuel wood by the population and now Haiti leads the hemisphere in tree-clearing with only 2% of the land possessing forests. Trees were cut down because of Haitians’ dependence on them for fuel, given that most persons are too impoverished to afford alternative fuels. This deforestation left the land susceptible to soil erosion, wind erosion, mudslides, flooding and loss of land fertility. Economic Haiti’s economy was the least developed in the hemisphere with it economic growth potential being limited by political instability, underdeveloped infrastructure and severe deforestation among others. Income inequality was high, poverty rampant, employment opportunities limited with only one in every 50 persons earning a steady income and the highest inflation rate in the Caribbean. The country experienced low economic growth where in the early 2000’s it was negative and GDP per capita stood at US$1,328. GDP stood at US$8.3 billion. Haiti has been ranked last in terms of competitiveness and thus far its main role in the international economy is that of receiving foreign aid. Port au Prince is the export center and economic hub for Haiti. This essay is an example of a student’s work Disclaimer This essay has been submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Essay Writing Service Dissertation Writing Service Who wrote this essay Place an Order With a Resilience Analysis, attention is paid to the elements of the county, including both long and short term physical, social environmental and environmental processes, which allowed it to resist, absorb, accommodate and recover from the effects of the hazard. Construction Sector Before 2010, Haiti had already begun efforts to build structures of sound architectural l integrity that could withstand natural hazards. Concrete houses clearly stood out in some communities. The government also tried to enforce international building codes seeing that they lacked national ones. Health The presence of Doctors without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), before the touchdown of Hurricane Tomas helped to mitigate the health effects of the hurricane. The organization had been present in Haiti for some time before and after the earthquake of January 2010 and as such, was able to respond in a short space of time with a large emergency relief effort. Temporary structures such as surgery tents were set up and healthcare was provided to any Haitians who sought it out. Before this, healthcare was inaccessible to most persons. With the earthquake destroying many health facilities and effectively crippling the health services, the MFS filled a gap that existed before and acted as an interim until the health sector recovered. Camaraderie and Social Collectivism Multitudes of Haitian Red Cross Volunteers banded together after the events to return communities to a sense of normalcy. The volunteers assisted the Red Cross and other foreign aid organizations with first aid treatment, tracing and searching for missing persons, vaccination campaigns, food distribution and building shelters. This was done by members of communities despite being victims themselves. Political As Hurricane Tomas approached Haiti, the government declared an orange level alert, the second highest alert in the country. The alert specified to be wary of the possibility of heavy rains, strong winds, thunderstorms, flooding, rock-falls and landslides. The alert also signified the launch of the country’s National Plan for Risk Management and Disaster which sought to prepare and co-ordinate public response to any natural emergency. Preferential Access Haiti had preferential access to U.S. markets for manufactured goods. This meant a guaranteed market for the country despite turmoil faced. Foreign Aid Foreign aid has helped in many cases to rebuild the economy and also provide for struggling citizens. There was a great influx of and promise of foreign aid into Haiti, from all over the world, before the hurricane. Aid came in the form of monetary funds, ships, helicopters, transport planes, marines, disaster response teams, grants, rescue specialists, search dogs, telecommunications reparation, relief teams, tents, water purification systems, medical aid, firefighters, and food. RECOMMENDATIONS Methodologies of this nature usually follow these three phases. Phase One: Emergency -assessment of the immediate damage caused by a natural disaster with the objective of establishing urgent emergency measures to save and sustain life. Phase Two: Rehabilitation and Recuperation – identification of the losses sustained and potentiality of facilitation long run recovery. This is a transitional stage. Phase Three: Reconstruction – strategies and initiatives towards long term development The ECLAC Methodology is focused more on the post disaster situation after a country is affected by a natural disaster, thus it is themed around phases two and three. It examines long run social and economic effects among others and pays less attention to the immediate after effects of a disaster which serves to provide informational assistance to those who must make emergency decisions especially about how resources should be allocated. The ECLAC methodology should therefore place more emphasis on the phase one process in order to fully reflect the costs and effects the natural disaster in question would have had on the country. This is vital as in developed nations, the economics losses such as capital and infrastructure, are usually greater than loss of life and injuries, whilst in developing countries it is the opposite. These immediate and direct effects must be accounted for but the methodology centralizes on indirect and secondary effects. The aggregation of direct and indirect effects gives a realer image of the impairment and damages resulting from the disaster. However the same cannot be said for secondary effects as these are side effects of both direct and indirect effects. Another recommendation is to focus on simplifying the methodology or instating a simpler methodology for the short term after the disaster occurs. The methodology has been modified and re-evaluated continuously to apply to the specificities of Caribbean nations. It however depends on copious amount of information. In a Caribbean context, information is usually outdated, lacking or simply unavailable. In order to cope with this limitation the methodology should be simplified to better attune itself with this characteristic, until Caribbean territories are able to release validated statistical data on a frequent basis. Also, due to the fact that the methodology is so intricate and complex it is possible that overlaps or double counting occurs. Simplification can help in circumventing this situation.