Project evaluation. 

6/18/22, 12:22 AM WGU Performance Assessment

https://tasks.wgu.edu/student/000962164/course/21860008/task/2886/overview 1/2

INTRODUCTION

In this task, you will evaluate the completed project you planned in Task 2. Your work for this task will not be evaluated
until Task 2 has been submitted and passed.

REQUIREMENTS

Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no
more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from
sources, even if cited correctly. The similarity report that is provided when you submit your task can be used as
a guide.

You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be
used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The
rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.

Tasks may not be submitted as cloud links, such as links to Google Docs, Google Slides, OneDrive, etc., unless
specified in the task requirements. All other submissions must be file types that are uploaded and submitted as
attachments (e.g., .docx, .pdf, .ppt).

A. Write an abstract (suggested length of 200–250 words) of the completed project. Include each of the

following:
• a summary of the identified business problem
• a summary of the approved IT solution
• the key points of the project implementation, from design to completion
• the metrics that were used to manage quality and measure the proposed and actual outcomes of the
project

B. Write a detailed quality assurance summary that includes each of the following:
• how you approached formative evaluation (quality assurance), including quality assurance criteria (the
metrics that will measure the project’s success and actual results)
• how you tested your solution
• test cases and scenarios used
• an explanation of the acceptance criteria and the evaluation framework based on industry standards,
regulations, or other acceptable criteria

C. Write a detailed review of your completed project with all dates in the past. Include each of the following:

• whether all your assumptions were resolved as expected
• all the phases of the project
• any deviations in the project time frame
• project dependencies
• resource requirements
• important project milestones reached based on the implementation strategy
• what is being delivered to the company, such as hardware and software
• which deliverables you plan to submit to document and explain your implementation plan

D. Write a detailed explanation of any revisions made during implementation based on the formative evaluation
results.

E. Write a detailed explanation of your completed summative evaluation.

F. Write a detailed explanation of which groups received specific reports and evaluation results (e.g., general

information for stakeholders, high-level report for project sponsor), including how those reports and results were
disseminated.

G. Write a detailed post-implementation description of support for the implemented solution. Include each of the

following:
• the resources needed for post-implementation support and how those resources will be obtained
• a detailed plan for short- and long-term maintenance

H. Write a detailed post-implementation project summary for the implemented solution. Include each of the

following:
• the deliverables included to document the plan and process (e.g., samples or artifacts that provide
evidence of the implementation)
• the criteria used to evaluate each outcome

6/18/22, 12:22 AM WGU Performance Assessment

https://tasks.wgu.edu/student/000962164/course/21860008/task/2886/overview 2/2

• a justification of differences between proposed and actual outcomes
• what you learned from the process of completing this project

I. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or
summarized.

J. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.

Running head:

1

12

Post-Implementation Report Title

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Institutional Affiliation(s)

Abstract

The Abstract will need to be one large, block paragraph (no indents). Include a sentence or two for each of the bullet point items in the part A task instructions (part A is the Abstract). Note that in APA the abstract is around 250 words in one block paragraph, but you can go as high as 300-350 words if needed. You will then repeat all of this as an introduction in the opening section of the paper, but in more detail.

Keywords: Add a few keywords for search terms here.

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Quality Assurance 4

Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4

Testing Methodology 4

Test Cases 4

Acceptance Criteria 5

Project Review 5

Assumptions 5

Project Phases 5

Timeline Deviations 5

Project Dependencies 5

Resource Requirements 6

Implementation Project Milestones 6

Project Deliverables 6

Documentation Deliverables 6

Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 6

Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 7

Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 7

Ongoing Support and Maintenance 7

Resources for Post-Implementation Support 8

Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 8

Post-Implementation Project Summary 8

Documentation Deliverables 8

Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 8

Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes 8

Lessons Learned 9

References 10

Tables 11


Post Implementation Report Title

As a brief introduction, you can use the four points from the abstract and elaborate a bit more. Keep in mind that this is a professional report for your bosses (upper leadership), so stay in the role of the IT Manager for your fictional company. As you go along, your APA formatted citations will look like this (Last Name, year) or (Website Name, year or n.d. for ‘no date.’). And remember, every source in your References list at the end must have a corresponding in-text citation, and vice-versa. You can’t have one without the other.



Quality Assurance

See “Manage Quality” Tools and Techniques in PMBOK chapter 8. Here you must thoroughly explain the methodology you used for evaluating project activities and results (your evaluation framework). Be sure and include measurement criteria! Also, to meet program outcome #6, make sure and discuss how data from this project will help the company “track information and support evidence-based decision making.”



Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics

Formative evaluation is what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track. What QA metrics were used to formatively assess and make course corrections, to ensure the project was successful as it progressed? Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 if you need ideas!



Testing Methodology

See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.



Test Cases

See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.



Acceptance Criteria

This is the final evaluation (summative evaluation) before the final hand off of the finished deliverable for any project. What acceptance criteria did you use, and how were these based on industry standards and/or regulations, or other acceptance criteria? Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.


Project Review

In this opening section, critically review (take a critical look at) the project (and yes, you will be repeating a lot of what was in the opening section, but with a critical eye and noting issues as you go). Then you will extend your review/critique with the sub-sections below.



Assumptions

What assumptions did you make going into this project, and were they all resolved as expected? If not, how did you resolve them to the satisfaction of all stakeholders?



Project Phases

Discuss all project phases with a critical eye, explaining what went well and what went wrong. You will include the Gantt chart or timeline here (with all dates in the past), but you must also discuss all phases and milestones in detail. They also won’t pass this without clear start and end dates in the past for all phases and milestones.


Timeline Deviations

Here you must provide a discussion of any deviations in the project timeline.


Project Dependencies

Here you must provide a discussion of any project dependencies. In other words, what activities were linked to other activities (what milestone had to be completed before the next phase, and so on)? The project itself could also be dependent on funding, or on the completion of a prior project. Discuss any and all dependencies here.


Resource Requirements

Here you must provide and discuss your resource allocation plan from the completed project. This should include a list of resources (including financial resources, personnel, scheduling resources, etc.) that were required and detailed explanations of how they were used to complete the project.


Implementation Project Milestones

Here you will recap the important milestones that marked the completion of each project phase, based on your implementation strategy and methodology. Be sure and include start and end dates in the past for each project milestone you discuss.


Project Deliverables

Discuss what is being delivered to the company as the culmination of this project, in great detail (including hardware, software, documentation, etc.). These are the desired project outcomes that are delivered as proposed.


Documentation Deliverables

These are evidence of your project deliverables. You can use screen shots, network diagrams, redacted documentation, etc., depending on the type of project. But these must be graphic evidence (artifacts) that show what was delivered. And as always, you must also discuss and explain each artifact in detail.


Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions

As mentioned earlier, formative evaluations are the ongoing QA measures used to keep the project on track. So what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track? You can refer to the tools and techniques under the Manage Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8. Remember that this is a work of fiction, so you can say you used things in this fictional implementation if they are appropriate. Also be sure and explain what project revisions or changes were made based on this formative assessment during project implementation.



Summative Evaluation Plan and Results

Here you will discuss the final QA measures that were used to evaluate the completed project and deliverables (see tools and techniques under the Control Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8). Also discuss the summative QA results in detail.


Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports

This fulfills program outcome #1. You will show your detailed Stakeholder Communication Plan and discuss it in detail. In other words, how did you use the plan to make sure all stakeholders were involved and up-to-date? Also discuss the reporting to all stakeholders that took place, and discuss how well it worked during implementation (or if there were issues, discuss those). For example, was there general reporting to all stakeholders? Was there high level reporting to the Project Sponsor? And so on. Also include how all reporting was delivered. Which stakeholders were contacted via email? Which received regular formal reports? Were there any weekly conference calls for any stakeholder group? You get the picture!


Ongoing Support and Maintenance

Here you will give an overview of your plan for ongoing support and maintenance of the project deliverables. This should include any planned upgrades that are part of keeping the implementation optimal. As you create the support and maintenance plan, make sure all proposed dates are in the future.



Resources for Post-Implementation Support

Here you must discuss what post-implementation resources will be needed for the maintenance plan you have proposed. Will funds and time need to be set aside for regular maintenance? Will a support team need to be available? Based on your proposed maintenance plan, be sure and list all needed resources here and explain where the resources (funds, employee resources, etc.) will come from.



Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan

Here the task instructions require a detailed plan for short and long term maintenance. Make sure all dates are in the future for this plan.


Post-Implementation Project Summary

Here you will write a post-implementation project summary. And again, this will be repeating much of what you have already done, but in summary. This is the problem that was identified, this is the solution that was proposed, this is how it was implemented, these are the outcomes, and so on.



Documentation Deliverables

Make sure to again discuss the project outcomes and deliverables and provide documentation, including a couple of artifacts or samples that provide evidence of the implementation.



Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome

Summarize the success criteria and evaluation framework for each project outcome, and how your project successfully evaluated and addressed these.



Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes

Here you need to explain and justify any differences between the proposed project outcomes and the actual outcomes. This would include course corrections that were made as part of your formative evaluation processes.



Lessons Learned

Document and explain what was learned from the challenges and successes of this implementation project, and explain how the lessons learned may help with future projects for the company.


References



Webpage Author or Organization (year or n.d.). Page or article title. Retrieved from http:// [Note that all lines after the first will have the distinctive APA ‘hanging indent’]

Author Last Name, First and Middle Initials (Year). Article title. Journal title, pages. City Name: Publisher Name, if book. [Note that all reference will be alphabetized]

Also, see provided APA reference and citations example document.

Tables

Table 1

Table Title

Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789

Note:

Running head:

1

12

Post-Implementation Report Title

Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees

Institutional Affiliation(s)

Abstract

The Abstract will need to be one large, block paragraph (no indents). Include a sentence or two for each of the bullet point items in the part A task instructions (part A is the Abstract). Note that in APA the abstract is around 250 words in one block paragraph, but you can go as high as 300-350 words if needed. You will then repeat all of this as an introduction in the opening section of the paper, but in more detail.

Keywords: Add a few keywords for search terms here.

Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Quality Assurance 4

Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4

Testing Methodology 4

Test Cases 4

Acceptance Criteria 5

Project Review 5

Assumptions 5

Project Phases 5

Timeline Deviations 5

Project Dependencies 5

Resource Requirements 6

Implementation Project Milestones 6

Project Deliverables 6

Documentation Deliverables 6

Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 6

Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 7

Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 7

Ongoing Support and Maintenance 7

Resources for Post-Implementation Support 8

Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 8

Post-Implementation Project Summary 8

Documentation Deliverables 8

Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 8

Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes 8

Lessons Learned 9

References 10

Tables 11


Post Implementation Report Title

As a brief introduction, you can use the four points from the abstract and elaborate a bit more. Keep in mind that this is a professional report for your bosses (upper leadership), so stay in the role of the IT Manager for your fictional company. As you go along, your APA formatted citations will look like this (Last Name, year) or (Website Name, year or n.d. for ‘no date.’). And remember, every source in your References list at the end must have a corresponding in-text citation, and vice-versa. You can’t have one without the other.



Quality Assurance

See “Manage Quality” Tools and Techniques in PMBOK chapter 8. Here you must thoroughly explain the methodology you used for evaluating project activities and results (your evaluation framework). Be sure and include measurement criteria! Also, to meet program outcome #6, make sure and discuss how data from this project will help the company “track information and support evidence-based decision making.”



Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics

Formative evaluation is what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track. What QA metrics were used to formatively assess and make course corrections, to ensure the project was successful as it progressed? Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 if you need ideas!



Testing Methodology

See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.



Test Cases

See PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.



Acceptance Criteria

This is the final evaluation (summative evaluation) before the final hand off of the finished deliverable for any project. What acceptance criteria did you use, and how were these based on industry standards and/or regulations, or other acceptance criteria? Again, see PMBOK chapter 8 for ideas, if necessary.


Project Review

In this opening section, critically review (take a critical look at) the project (and yes, you will be repeating a lot of what was in the opening section, but with a critical eye and noting issues as you go). Then you will extend your review/critique with the sub-sections below.



Assumptions

What assumptions did you make going into this project, and were they all resolved as expected? If not, how did you resolve them to the satisfaction of all stakeholders?



Project Phases

Discuss all project phases with a critical eye, explaining what went well and what went wrong. You will include the Gantt chart or timeline here (with all dates in the past), but you must also discuss all phases and milestones in detail. They also won’t pass this without clear start and end dates in the past for all phases and milestones.


Timeline Deviations

Here you must provide a discussion of any deviations in the project timeline.


Project Dependencies

Here you must provide a discussion of any project dependencies. In other words, what activities were linked to other activities (what milestone had to be completed before the next phase, and so on)? The project itself could also be dependent on funding, or on the completion of a prior project. Discuss any and all dependencies here.


Resource Requirements

Here you must provide and discuss your resource allocation plan from the completed project. This should include a list of resources (including financial resources, personnel, scheduling resources, etc.) that were required and detailed explanations of how they were used to complete the project.


Implementation Project Milestones

Here you will recap the important milestones that marked the completion of each project phase, based on your implementation strategy and methodology. Be sure and include start and end dates in the past for each project milestone you discuss.


Project Deliverables

Discuss what is being delivered to the company as the culmination of this project, in great detail (including hardware, software, documentation, etc.). These are the desired project outcomes that are delivered as proposed.


Documentation Deliverables

These are evidence of your project deliverables. You can use screen shots, network diagrams, redacted documentation, etc., depending on the type of project. But these must be graphic evidence (artifacts) that show what was delivered. And as always, you must also discuss and explain each artifact in detail.


Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions

As mentioned earlier, formative evaluations are the ongoing QA measures used to keep the project on track. So what was used while the project was being implemented to help it stay on track? You can refer to the tools and techniques under the Manage Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8. Remember that this is a work of fiction, so you can say you used things in this fictional implementation if they are appropriate. Also be sure and explain what project revisions or changes were made based on this formative assessment during project implementation.



Summative Evaluation Plan and Results

Here you will discuss the final QA measures that were used to evaluate the completed project and deliverables (see tools and techniques under the Control Quality process in PMBOK chapter 8). Also discuss the summative QA results in detail.


Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports

This fulfills program outcome #1. You will show your detailed Stakeholder Communication Plan and discuss it in detail. In other words, how did you use the plan to make sure all stakeholders were involved and up-to-date? Also discuss the reporting to all stakeholders that took place, and discuss how well it worked during implementation (or if there were issues, discuss those). For example, was there general reporting to all stakeholders? Was there high level reporting to the Project Sponsor? And so on. Also include how all reporting was delivered. Which stakeholders were contacted via email? Which received regular formal reports? Were there any weekly conference calls for any stakeholder group? You get the picture!


Ongoing Support and Maintenance

Here you will give an overview of your plan for ongoing support and maintenance of the project deliverables. This should include any planned upgrades that are part of keeping the implementation optimal. As you create the support and maintenance plan, make sure all proposed dates are in the future.



Resources for Post-Implementation Support

Here you must discuss what post-implementation resources will be needed for the maintenance plan you have proposed. Will funds and time need to be set aside for regular maintenance? Will a support team need to be available? Based on your proposed maintenance plan, be sure and list all needed resources here and explain where the resources (funds, employee resources, etc.) will come from.



Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan

Here the task instructions require a detailed plan for short and long term maintenance. Make sure all dates are in the future for this plan.


Post-Implementation Project Summary

Here you will write a post-implementation project summary. And again, this will be repeating much of what you have already done, but in summary. This is the problem that was identified, this is the solution that was proposed, this is how it was implemented, these are the outcomes, and so on.



Documentation Deliverables

Make sure to again discuss the project outcomes and deliverables and provide documentation, including a couple of artifacts or samples that provide evidence of the implementation.



Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome

Summarize the success criteria and evaluation framework for each project outcome, and how your project successfully evaluated and addressed these.



Justification of Proposed versus Actual Project Outcomes

Here you need to explain and justify any differences between the proposed project outcomes and the actual outcomes. This would include course corrections that were made as part of your formative evaluation processes.



Lessons Learned

Document and explain what was learned from the challenges and successes of this implementation project, and explain how the lessons learned may help with future projects for the company.


References



Webpage Author or Organization (year or n.d.). Page or article title. Retrieved from http:// [Note that all lines after the first will have the distinctive APA ‘hanging indent’]

Author Last Name, First and Middle Initials (Year). Article title. Journal title, pages. City Name: Publisher Name, if book. [Note that all reference will be alphabetized]

Also, see provided APA reference and citations example document.

Tables

Table 1

Table Title

Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head Column Head
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789
Row Head 123 123 123 123
Row Head 456 456 456 456
Row Head 789 789 789 789

Note:

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 2

A. Abstract

The information technology (IT) management of XYZ Company has experienced tremendous

challenges with its technological operations emanating from the use of old devices and outdated

computer software. This has slowed down its productivity, increased the costs of operations, and

put the security of data at risk of loss. The company has been using old HP desktops with as low

as 8 GB RAM with 256 GB hard disk and windows 7 operating systems. The computers and the

operating systems will be replaced with new Dell laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB SSD

and upgrade from windows 7 to windows 10. The company needs to replace 175 computers with

new laptops in two phases with the first phase having a pilot lot of 5 laptops delivered to various

departments under the guidance of the head of departments. Employees in these departments will

give feedback on the efficiency of these new computers and the company can make any

adjustments needed before installing the bigger remaining lot. The project will then commence

for all the departments in the company. The Company intends to implement this project for six

months with the first phase of 5 laptops beginning in July 2022 and the remaining setting in

between August and October 2022. To achieve the intended plan the company will allocate

enough financial resources and time to remain within the said timeframes. The procurement

department has been directed to purchase the latest operating system from Microsoft and the

computers from Dell in order to adjust to the current technology. The company has developed a

training team and mandated it to document the employees’ feedback on the frequently asked

questions on the new project. Employees will receive training on the new hardware and software

upon the completion of the installation.

Keywords: upgrade, computer, operating systems

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 3

Table of Contents

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company…………………………………………………………….5

Needs Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

Problem and Causes ……………………………………………………………………………………..7

Impact on Each Stakeholder Group ……………………………………………………………….8

Solution Alignment ……………………………………………………………………………………….9

Cost Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9

Itemized Costs ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Justification for Costs …………………………………………………………………………………. 10

Risk Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Quantitative and Qualitative Risks ………………………………………………………………. 12

Cost Benefit Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………….. 13

Mitigation of Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………… 14

Justification of Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

Project Resource Management Plan ……………………………………………………………………………… 15

Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

Justification of Resources ……………………………………………………………………………. 16

Resource Allocation Plan …………………………………………………………………………….. 16

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 4

Gaps and Impact on Other Projects …………………………………………………………….. 17

Project Plan ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Scope ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

Assumptions ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Project Phases ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

Timelines …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

Dependencies ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Risk Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

Important Milestones………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Project Launch… ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Strategy for Implementation ……………………………………………………………………….. 22

Documentation Deliverables ………………………………………………………………………… 22

Hardware and Software Deliverables …………………………………………………………… 23

Evaluation Framework ……………………………………………………………………………….. 23

References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 5

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company

The IT manager of XYZ Company has realized the company is running at a risk of data

loss, slowed productivity, and increasing the costs of operations. These have come along from

the use of old computers and outdated operating systems. The world of technology is evolving

each day and most companies are turning towards fast computers and enough storage systems to

cater to the growing need to store complex data. Using old computers by XYZ Company has

brought losses to the company and prevented it from competing with other companies using the

latest technology. The company intends to upgrade from Windows 7 operating systems to

Windows 10 and from old HP desktops to Dell laptops to gain a competitive with other

companies.

The company uses old HP desktops with 8GB ram and a windows 7 operating system.

These slow computers derail the morale of employees and increase their frustrations when trying

to complete their assigned tasks. The company is experiencing a loss of productivity caused by

this factor. The ability and capability of employees do not matter if they are not internally

motivated and are not willing to work harder to achieve the company’s goals (Basit et.al, 2018).

It requires more energy to execute and deliver the results by workers who use inappropriate

equipment at work. The company will replace the old computers with Dell laptops with high

storage capacity and a perfect processor to aid the problem of slow production. The RAM allows

multitasking and employees can open a number of tabs without hitches. The processor of Dell

laptops allows navigation through multiple applications with high speed and transition. They also

come along with a long battery life which allows the use of the computer for a long time without

recharging and can use away from the power source. Employee satisfaction will be increased

which in turn translates into hard work hence increased productivity.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 6

The use of old computers and outdated software has resulted in a risk of data loss and

information insecurity in the company. Data privacy entails the link between gathering and

dissemination of data encompassing the legal and political challenges surrounding them.

Generally, most data privacy challenges have come up due to the broad nature of evolving

technology in the modern world. Everywhere in the world, technology is being applied may it to

operate daily routines, store companies’ information, etc. Maintaining data privacy is not a

simple task for a company or individual. As a result, this company seeks to seal different

loopholes faced in protecting data privacy and its possible solution to avoid data cybercrimes in

this speedy evolving technology.

The company must categorize data by its possible danger and try to safeguard the data

with better and stronger security strategies and technologies. These strategies can be supported

by using the current data handling systems incorporated by Dell computers and windows 10

operating systems. Maintaining data privacy is very costly; a company’s data exposure can lead

to billions of dollars in revenue lost. Then the company must capitalize on data security

technologies that can help safeguard and store its data, such as data backup, data archiving, and

data automating processes; these technologies help lower costs in a contest of labor, improved

control, and governance reduces risks. Using Dell laptops by the company will help achieve

these goals and mitigate the risks that arise from data exposure.

Handling data privacy is becoming harder due to advanced technology like the Internet of

Things (IoT), phones, and watches are growing at a high rate globally. Research has shown that

more than 90% of data security specialists are worried about the Internet of Things rather than

web security (Moradi, 2021). The company’s IT sector is prone to cybercrimes due to outdated

operating systems and old hardware. However, the company has re-evaluated its policy plans

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 7

covering the IT sector by planning to source laptops from Dell Company and operating systems

from Microsoft. These have high security in data control due to the adequacy of storage space

and speed to execute commands. The operating systems are compatible with Dell computers,

which increase the security of data and avoid malicious activities that may result in cybercrimes.

B. Needs analysis

For a company to grow it must keep up with the changing times and use the latest

technology to gain a competitive advantage over other companies. Sustainable competitive

advantage is a unique business strategy that is undertaken by a business corporation to maintain

performance within a certain timeframe (Liu & Xu, 2021). A company should gain a competitive

advantage in order to compete for longer. XYZ Company is gaining a competitive advantage by

upgrading the old computers and using the latest operating system. To achieve this the company,

need to purchase the best laptops from Dell with faster RAM to speed up its operations. The

main goal of this project is to improve the Company’s performance by replacing old computers

and upgrading the old, outdated operating system with a current and more efficient one.

Problem and Causes

Employees are constantly frustrated and are not able to complete assigned tasks on time

because of old and slow computers and outdated operating systems. The cost of maintaining old

computers is high, this is a result of replacing old parts that break down easily. Most of them being

out of warranty are to be repaired by the company which increases the cost of maintenance.

Microsoft has discontinued Windows 7 support since January 14, 2020, and the company is paying

for extended security updates, fixes, and technical support and the cost is increasing every year.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 8

The computers have been under constant attacks of malware and risks of viruses which

have led to the loss of data and disruption of operations. The company has incurred extra costs in

paying for expenses to receive these services which will be cut down when it sources windows 10

that provided these services to its users. Installing Windows 10 on older computers will not be

secure as they are not fully compatible, installing windows 10 on a new computer will be most

effective.

Impact on Stakeholder Group

The primary and key stakeholder is the CEO who is responsible for the overall success of

the company and is accountable to the board of directors. The CEO needs to provide the board

with acceptable reasons and justify that this project will resolve the issue and thus need to fund the

project.

Another primary stakeholder group consists of department heads of the company. They

oversee the day-to-day operation of their respective departments and are accountable in front of

the CEO. The company is experiencing downtime, loss of productivity, increased costs of

operations and put the security of data at risk of loss because of old Computers and outdated

operating systems. This stakeholder group will be consulted in the planning and developing

requirements of the project.

Another stakeholder group is employees of the company. They are the principal users of

the computers and are constantly frustrated and are not able to complete assigned tasks on time

because of old computers and outdated operating systems. It is crucial to provide these

stakeholders with a more efficient and reliable computer and operating system that will equip them

to perform their tasks well by eliminating downtime which will increase productivity.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 9

Solution Alignment

The XYZ Company wants to upgrade from old HP desktops with 8 GB RAM to Dell

laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB storage. Computer performance is measured in its

capability to respond to commands, the speed at which it gives feedback, and the general

efficiency of its functions (Kumar & Ali, 2018). In order to settle on the best, the company

performed a market survey to determine the best to settle for.

The company compares two brands of computers i.e., Dell and HP in terms of

components like central processing unit (CPU) and memory capacity. The company performed a

test analysis of both computers where two employees from the IT department were assigned a

task and required to perform it using both computers simultaneously and exchange the computers

and perform the same task again. It was observed that the Dell laptop responded to commands

and had clear visuals compared to the HP. These results were analyzed, and the company

realized that Dell’s CPU was quicker than that of HP.

C. Cost Analysis

XYZ Company has set funds intended for the execution of this project in acquiring

laptops, docking stations, and operating systems. The laptops and docking stations will be

procured from Dell Inc and the operating system will be procured from Microsoft. Imaging the

laptops/ installing operating systems, deploying the laptops, and training employees will be

conducted by our IT department which will save the company around $12,000.

The pilot 5 computers will go at a cost of $1509 each for the Dell Latitude 5420 and the

total cost of 5 laptops would be $7,545. The cost of a docking station for the 5 laptops will be

$350 each with the total cost of 5 docking stations $1750.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 10

For the completion of the whole process, the remaining 170 laptops will be purchased at

$256,530 and 170 docking stations will be purchased at $59,500. This amount is summed up

with earlier costs for the pilot computers and docking stations to give a total of $325,325 for the

total number of laptops and docking stations. Windows 10 Pro License costs $100 per license

and for the whole project which will be $17,500. Imaging the laptops will cost $8750 and for

training the cost will be $2800. The total costs to complete the whole project will be $354,375.

Itemized Costs

Table 1

Item Cost per unit Units Total Cost

Dell Latitude 5420 $1509.00 175 $264,075.00

Dell Dock -WD19S 130W $350.00 175 $61,250.00

Windows 10 Pro License $100.00 175 $17,500.00

Imaging laptops $50.00 175 $8750.00

Training – – $2800.00

Total $354,375.00

Justification for Costs

To equip employees to perform their tasks efficiently and increase productivity, it will be

important to examine and analyze the pros and cons of the existing system. This will be done

through interviews, surveys, and observing users while using the computers. In addition, we will

look into costs incurred for maintenance, extended security updates, fixes, and technical support.

The data and the information gathered during this phase will be a good input for the planning and

development phase to pinpoint the weak points of the current system. It will help to focus on

procuring a better operating system and laptops with better specifications which will alleviate the

problem. The majority of the costs of the proposal occur during the development phase of the

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 11

project. This is the primary and most important phase of the project in which hardware and

software deliverables will be built. The development will involve procurement and imaging. The

procurement includes hardware (laptops and docking stations) and software (Windows Operating

system). To build a fast and reliable laptop, the team will conduct QA and user testing at each

stage of the development process.

D. Risk Assessment

Table 2 Risk Register

Computer Refresh Risk Register

Asset

Threat /

Vulnerability

Existing

Controls

Likelihood

Consequence

Level of

Risk

Risk

Priority

Deploying

Laptops

Users’ data

Sync users’ data

to the network

drive

low

– Project delay

-Increase cost

High

High

Staff

Staff

Resignation

Competitive

Salary &

Benefits

Low

-Project delay

-Reduce scope

-Increase cost

Medium

Medium

Laptop/ dock

Procurement

Delivery

Will be ordered

ahead

Low

-Project delay –

-Increase cost

Low Low

The project expects quantitative and qualitative risks associated with upgrading the

computers. Risk assessment is a key part of XYZ Company as it will affect the future operations

of the company if the risks are not mitigated. Risks assessment is one of the main parts of

business continuity and a key determinant of business success in the future (Vulanović et, al

2020).

Users’ data backup and transfer to the new laptops have a high impact as a risk but this

risk would be considered of a low likelihood since the company has been Syncing users’ data on

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 12

OneDrive and on the network shared drives. Staff retention is another possible risk. This risk has

a medium impact, but it is of a low likelihood since most of the project team has been with the

company for more than 4 years and their pay rate and benefit are competitive with the job

market. The procurement/delivery risk likelihood is low, and its impact is also low as we have

enough time to order the machines ahead of the project development stage.

Bearing in mind the risks involved in initiating the project the company is yet willing to

undertake the project as it is beneficial, and the advantages outweigh the risks as the risks in the

project are of low likelihood.

Quantitative and Qualitative Risks

Employee retention is considered a quantitative risk since it can be calculated by

evaluating the staff turnover history of the company. Based on our evaluation the staff turnover

of the project team is over 4 years and it is safe to conclude that the retention risk is low. If staff

were to leave the company, the project would be highly impacted until that staff is replaced.

Replacing staff can take months so it will affect the timeline of the project and will eventually

delay the project.

Another quantitative risk that can be calculated would be the risk of delay in the shipping

of the purchased Laptop/ dock. Shipping delays could happen with foreseen or unforeseen

circumstances, and it could affect the project timeline and cost. In order to mitigate the effect of

shipping delays, the delivery will be scheduled ahead of the development phase. If it is not

scheduled ahead the effect would have an impact on the delay of the hardware and software

deliverables on time.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 13

The qualitative risks associated with this project will arise during laptop deployment. The

risk associated with deployment is data loss. This risk might not be calculated but data loss

during laptop deployment would have an impact on the overall success of the project.

Cost Benefit Analysis

Retention of employees with competitive pay and benefits requires upfront costs for the

company. The project cost estimation includes this competitive pay and benefits as estimated by

previous projects. If the risk occurs, the cost and time impact on the project is substantial,

especially for a more experienced skilled professional. The market for experienced skilled

professionals is very competitive and it takes several weeks even sometimes months to hire a

new employee. This would affect the project timeline and would drastically delay the completion

of the project. Even after hiring, there will be some time to familiarize the new employee with

the project which is a significant cost burden. The time delay and cost effects will be averted by

providing competitive pay and benefits to retain those employees.

If data is not backed up properly there will be a total data loss during deployment. The

company must protect data with better and stronger security strategies and technologies. To

avert this, the user’s data will be saved into OneDrive and will be synced in real time. The risk is

high, but the likelihood is low because of the existing control which is using the OneDrive. If the

risk occurs, the effect on the project will be significant. So, the benefit of using the service of

OneDrive outweighs the cost of the service associated with it.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 14

Mitigation of Risks

In order to mitigate staff retention risk, it is important to provide benefits and competitive

pay for the project team members. They are more experienced and skilled professionals and must

be rewarded accordingly. It is vital that the team members feel valued.

Mitigating the risk associated with users’ data loss is key for the successful completion of

the project. Though there is an existing control mechanism in place, the team will evaluate and

monitor it at the time of deployment to make sure that it is actually backed up on OneDrive. In

addition to that communication will be sent to all employees to backup important information on

the company’s network drive.

E. Justification of Approach

The project implementation methodology used in the project plan will be a mix of agile

and waterfall. The strategy for the implementation of the main phases of the project will be a

waterfall approach while the phases within the main phase will be agile. In the waterfall

approach the phases will help to set up the requirements and the structure which is necessary for

the next phase to be successful. For instance, imaging of laptops will be required to be completed

before the laptop deployment process. The success of the deployment of laptops will be

determined by the timely and successful imaging process as outlined in the project requirements.

The project will adopt an agile approach within each phase. For example, in the

development phase the project will begin implementation with 5 laptops from five different

departments and these employees will provide feedback on the newly deployed computers and

operating system. This will help the project team to use the feedback and make any adjustments

needed before deploying the remaining computers.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 15

F. Project Resource Management Plan

To execute the project the company has developed a resource utilization plan that will be

used to execute the project. The most important factor is the human resource that will be required

to execute this project. The company has selected a project manager to head all operations. The

project is directed to select a team of employees who will take part in the first phase of the

project and a technical team to help guide these employees. The project manager will report to

the chief executive of the company to determine the progress of the project. A budget for the

project has been formulated with time frames and costs in the different phases of the project. The

project manager is expected to account for all expenses and report to the CEO any adjustments

made.

Resources

In order to build and successfully complete the proposed computer refresh project,

several resources will be needed. The team will consist of a full-time project manager and six

professionals who are well experienced in an area and will contribute to the successful

completion of the project. Most of the team members will be available for most of the project’s

lifetime depending on the need of the project. It will be essential to engage the team members to

a certain extent throughout the project life to assist with any changing features.

Financial resources will be needed to fund the project. The approval of this project

proposal will provide the financial resources necessary for funding the tools and staff resources

required to complete the project development.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 16

Justification of Resources

A full-time project manager will manage all phases of the project from start to finish. The project

manager will be fully engaged in daily activities, planning, and forecasting. The project manager

will be crucial to ensuring the timely completion of the project and production deliverables that

satisfies all requirements. Also, the project manager will monitor the project budget and validate

approved change requests that don’t affect/impact either the budget or the timeline.

All six project team members would be required to work on the project in order to complete the

project. Four of the team members would be required for the imaging, deploying, and training

stages of the project while two of the team members will join the rest of the team on the

deployment and training stages.

Financial resources will be needed to fund the project since the company is experiencing

downtime, loss of productivity, and extra cost because of old Computers and outdated operating

systems. This proposed IT solution of computer refresh will alleviate these problems and equip

employees to perform their tasks efficiently by eliminating downtime which will increase

productivity.

Resource Allocation Plan

The IT department consists of the majority of the project management team necessary to

accomplish the proposed project. These team members are currently involved in other projects

and requests to release from their current assignments will be put in. During a transition phase

the team members will be willing to augment some of their time till they are fully assigned to the

project. A full-time project manager will be requested and assigned by the company’s IT

department to lead the project.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 17

The budget for laptop and dock procurement has already been allocated for the project.

Five testing staff will be requested from the operational departments at the pilot deployment

phase in order to get feedback.

Gaps and Impact on Other Projects

Some of the departments are using modern software and application, but since the

computer and the operating system are old and outdated, they are not able to use them at full

capacity. The implementation of this project will have a positive impact on them so that they will

be able to use their software and applications at efficiently.

There is another project for the finance department at the final phase where we have

some of the staff who work on another project. This staff will be also working on our project as a

team member, but their assignment in our project is not required at the early phase of the project.

Since their engagement in the early phase of this project is minimal, there would be no impact on

both projects.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 18

G. Project Plan

Funds for each phase will be allocated separately with each phase receiving the required

funds calculated in the budget. Personnel involved in every phase are required to know their

responsibilities and the goal of the project to perform diligently. The aim of the project is to

equip the company with an IT competitive niche by upgrading its computers and installing the

latest software. Successful completion of the project will streamline the company’s operations,

increase its production, and enable it to compete with other companies.

Scope

The project is initiated by the IT manager of the Company who has realized fails in the

company’s computer and intends to replace the old computers with new laptops and upgrade the

operating system of the computers. The project will be undertaken by employees from the IT

department under a project manager where the technical team will monitor the training process.

A total of four employees will be required for the imaging phase of the project. After successful

completion of the first phase two employees will be added to the team and together perform the

deployment and training of employees.

To have a smooth and easy transition, the new operating system must be compatible with

the company’s current software. Users will be able to use applications the same way they used to

in the old system. Most of the existing application interfaces will be working the same way.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 19

Assumptions

The company assumes that replacing the computers and upgrading to recent software will

directly improve productivity, improve employee morale, secure the company’s data and reduce

the cost of maintenance. However, these assumptions may not be justified or may take a longer

period than expected to realize the outcomes. The company assumes that the project may take a

few months to complete and translate into results and success for the company without

considering the hindrances of natural phenomena. It is also assumed that all existing software

will be compatible with the windows 10 operating system.

Project Phases and Timeline

1. Initiation: Upon approval of the project Charter.

June 27th, 2022.

2. Planning and design: 280 Hours (7 weeks)

June 27th + 35 business days = August 12

3. Development and Installation: 640 Hours (13 weeks)

August 13th + 64 business days = December 2nd

4. Monitoring and Control:(Including Training and documentation)680 Hours (14 weeks)

August 13th + 69 business days = December 9th

5. Project Closure: Upon acceptance of deliverables by the user.

December 10th, 2022

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 20

Dependencies

The project is dependent on certain factors for it to commence and be executed

successfully. The employees in training are expected to cooperate and learn the operations within

the given timeframe as it will affect the success of the project. The project depends on the

provided finances should there be deficiencies in between the phases it could disrupt the project.

The project manager should be novice and goal-oriented to execute all responsibilities willing

and give true feedback.

Risk Factors

The project might encounter a number of risks during both cases which will affect the

overall performance of the activities involved. Human beings are prone to sickness and other

aspects of nature like death. In cases where the death of an employee or the project manager

occurs this will affect the timeframe and overall execution of the project. The death of an IT

expert in the training team would mean a serious gap and delay the execution process. Again, the

employees might not be willing to undertake the new development or might be slow in learning

the new software which would prolong the entire process.

Financial risk factors will occur if there is additional time required in executing the

process. Extra finances will be required to pay for the training which will not be part of the

employees of the company. The Environment also poses a number of risks to the project, these

include the risk of fire outbreaks, breakages of computers caused by deadly earth tremors,

accidents caused by shipping vehicles, etc. these factors will directly affect the project at all

phases prolonging the timelines and causing losses.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 21

Important Milestones

The computer refresh project plan will consist of the following milestones.

Milestone 1: Computer refresh project Charter Approval

➢ June 27th, 2022

Milestone 2: Laptops and Docks delivery

➢ July 18, 2022

Milestone 3: Completion of imaging the laptops

➢ August 8, 2022

Milestone 4: Pilot Laptops deployment

➢ August 17, 2022

Milestone 5: Acceptance of feedback from Pilot deployment

➢ August 22, 2022

Milestone 6: Start of Laptops deployment

➢ August 25, 2022

Milestone 7: Completion of Laptops deployment

➢ December 2nd, 2022

Milestone 8: Employees’ first training Session Schedule

➢ December 3rd, 2022

Milestone 9: User feedback and completion of training

➢ December 8th

Milestone 10: Project Closure upon acceptance of deliverables by the user.

➢ December 10th, 2022

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 22

Project Launch

The project kickoff meeting will be led by the project manager and will include all

stakeholders. It will involve a high-level discussion, and a project charter will be signed and

officially approved by the Project Sponsor.

A formal communication will be sent to internal stakeholders/employees of the company

describing the project initiative and objectives.

Strategy for Implementation

The project implementation strategy will consist of a mix of agile and waterfall

methodologies. The strategy for the overall implementation of the phases of the project will be

the waterfall approach. The procurement and imaging of laptops will be required to be completed

before the laptop deployment process. The success of the deployment of laptops will be

determined by the timely and successful imaging process as outlined in the project requirements.

The project will adopt an agile approach in the deployment phase. The project will begin

implementation with 5 laptops from five different departments and these employees will provide

feedback on the newly deployed computers and operating system so the project can make any

adjustments needed before deploying the remaining computers.

Documentation Deliverables

The documentation deliverables will be operational/ technical documentation for

employees’ reference on frequently asked questions of the windows 10 operating system and a

lesson learned document which will be necessary for future project reference.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 23

Hardware and Software Deliverables

The hardware deliverables will be replacing the existing HP 800 G2 desktop computers

with 8 GB RAM and 256 GB HDD with Dell laptops with 16 GB RAM and 512 GB SSD. The

software deliverables will be upgrading the operating system from windows 7 to windows 10.

Evaluation Framework

The project will be monitored, evaluated, and assessed by the team selected at various

levels. The project evaluation will be conducted at several times throughout the project life

cycle. The quality assurance (QA) team will review and evaluate each phase if it is in line with

the project requirements. In addition, the QA also checks the functionality of the project

deliverables and visual compliance. If these reviews fail the project requirements, the project

manager and the team will evaluate the severity of the failure and determine if change is required

or can be implemented without requiring any change in the next phase.

Another evaluation framework will be feedback from the users. A feedback form will be

available for all employee of the company online as well as print. The feedback form will be

used for questions or suggestions related to the project. The project can be evaluated and

assessed on the frequency at which the feedback form is used and in what manner the responses

are handled. A successful project should produce the least number of suggestions possible. It will

be important and necessary to address each suggestion and questions on time with great interest.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 24

References

Basit, A. A., Hermina, T., & Al Kautsar, M. (2018). The Influence of Internal Motivation and

Work Environment on Employee Productivity. KnE Social Sciences.

Blaga, P. (2020). The importance of human resources in the continuous improvement of the

production quality. Procedia manufacturing, 46, 287-293.

Ding, D., Liu, X., & Xu, H. (2021, October). Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Case Studies

of Dell, Ikea and Byte Dance. In 2021 6th International Conference on Modern

Management and Education Technology (MMET 2021) (pp. 674-679). Atlantis Press.

Lu, P., Cai, X., Wei, Z., Song, Y., & Wu, J. (2019). Quality management practices and inter-

organizational project performance: Moderating effect of governance

mechanisms. International Journal of Project Management, 37(6), 855-869.

Moradi, M. (2021) Importance of internet of things (IoT) in Marketing Research and Its Ethical

and Data Privacy Challenges. Business Ethics and Leadership, 5(1), 22-30.

Nazir, M., Kumar, D., & Ali, L. (2018). Critical Analysis of High Performance Computing

(HPC). International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 16(9), 153-

63.

Vulanović, S., Delić, M., Kamberović, B., Beker, I., & Lalić, B. (2020). Integrated management

systems based on risk assessment: Methodology development and case studies. Advances

in Production Engineering & Management, 15(1), 93-106.

Computer Refresh for XYZ Company 25

Tables

Table 1: Itemized Costs

Item Cost per unit Units Total Cost

Dell Latitude 5420 $1509.00 175 $264,075.00

Dell Dock -WD19S 130W $350.00 175 $61,250.00

Windows 10 Pro License $100.00 175 $17,500.00

Imaging laptops $50.00 175 $8750.00

Training – – $2800.00

Total $354,375.00

Table 2: Risk Assessment

Computer Refresh Risk Register

Asset

Threat /

Vulnerability

Existing

Controls

Likelihood

Consequence

Level of

Risk

Risk

Priority

Deploying

Laptops

Users’ data

Sync users’ data

to the network

drive

low

– Project delay

-Increase cost

High

High

Staff

Staff

Resignation

Competitive

Salary &

Benefits

Low

-Project delay

-Reduce scope

-Increase cost

Medium

Medium

Laptop/ dock

Procurement

Delivery

Will be ordered

ahead

Low

-Project delay –

-Increase cost

Low Low

Running Head: POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 1

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade

Michael Decker

Western Governors University

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 2

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade 3
Quality Assurance 4

Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics 4
Testing Methodology 5
Test Cases 5
Acceptance Criteria 6

Project Review 6
Assumptions 7
Project Phases 8
Timeline Deviations 10
Project Dependencies 10
Resource Requirements 10
Implementation Project Milestones 11
Project Deliverables 11
Documentation Deliverables 12

Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions 12
Summative Evaluation Plan and Results 13
Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports 13
Ongoing Support and Maintenance 14

Resources for Post-Implementation Support 14
Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan 14

Post-Implementation Project Summary 15
Documentation Deliverables 16
Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome 16
Justification of Proposed Versus Actual Project Outcomes 17
Lessons Learned 18

Tables 20

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 3

Post-Implementation University Website Upgrade

In a previous project, the University website service, built on Drupal 7, was migrated

from an on-site server to a cloud hosting provider. After the completion of that project, it was

time to focus on the evolution of the service provided for the University community. Drupal 7 is

coming close to its end-of-life and soon will be unsupported. The end-of-life posed a problem

due to its lack of security updates from the Drupal security team. To provide a safe and secure

website service, it was necessary to build a new University CMS built on Drupal 8, the latest

version. The new Drupal 8 system will be able to evolve and easily migrate into Drupal 9 with

little effort (Hojtsy, 2020). Because of that, the system will be capable of security updates for at

least 5 more years.

The Drupal 7 CMS provided to the University had a dated appearance and it was slow

and lacked functionality that could be found in competitors like Squarespace. The project was to

build a new system with a modern appearance that would have a wide assortment of features.

The system was planned to be functional for the majority of the sites previously on the Drupal 7

platform. The project began with a discovery phase to analyze and categorize the Drupal 7 sites.

The analysis of the old sites provided information about what features were most commonly

used. The data provided was passed to a design phase to build a modern and attractive website

theme, using the University identity guidelines. The designs were then passed on to the

developers to build the appropriate functionality. The project initially launched a service with

some reduced functionality compared to the old service. Communication was provided to the

University community about the plans for future features. This allowed site owners the ability to

plan for their migration onto the new platform. Those additional features were released on a

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 4

monthly basis to expand the functionality of the system and give the site owners the tools they

required. Towards the end of the project, new requisitions on the old Drupal 7 system was shut

down. All new sites had to be built on the newly built Drupal 8 platform.

Quality Assurance

Quality assurance was implemented throughout the project. Several implementations

were done to validate accurate development and ensure deliverables were met correctly. The

outcomes of these enforced the strength and the reliability of the project and the deliverables it

produced.

Formative Evaluation and QA Metrics

In the early phases of the project, a requirements documentation was built after reviewing

the functionality of the old Drupal 7 system. The requirements were then put into tickets to be

completed by the development teams. Based on the original requirements, 92% of the

functionality was completed successfully. After some work was completed, the remaining 8% of

the requirements were viewed as no longer necessary. The completed tasks were then manually

reviewed for quality assurance and through legal compliance. All necessary requirements were

fulfilled in regard to legal compliance.

Since the project used an Agile methodology it was useful to view the larger scope of

each phase of the project as an “Epic”. The epics were then scoped and sized appropriately.

During each phase of the project the tasks to implement each phase changed, but the overall

completion percentage of each phase was monitored closely. As the phase progressed there was a

clear progression towards the goal of each phase.

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 5

Testing Methodology

Testing was implemented in several ways. During the initial discovery phase, user testing

was done on the old Drupal 7 system to discover requirements, and downfalls users were

experiencing. Documentation was developed as requirements to validate as the project

progressed. That documentation was used by QA individuals and each requirement was reviewed

and marked as completed or needed revisions as the work was complete. This testing ensured

that the product produced the expected results that end-users were expecting.

Testing was also implemented heavily during the development phase. Automated

regression and acceptance testing were implemented to ensure any changes would not affect

existing functionality. Performing those tests also helped to validate any dependencies that are

updated will still function as expected. As new bugs are discovered throughout the project, a new

test is written to replicate the error. Then the change is implemented to correct the bug until all

tests pass again.

Test Cases

With user testing, two cases were performed. Thorough tests were performed on random

students, staff, and public people to review the visual appearance and the usability of the

framework. This test case helped to identify areas that are in need of improvement for the public

face of each website. The public side of the service must be quick to navigate and be easy to read

and easy to find information. Also included in this test case was accessibility for impaired users.

It is critical to provide a usable website for non-sighted and color blind visitors.

The other user test case was with site owners. That test case was to ensure the product

was easy to build out an attractive website. Site owners were mostly familiar with the old Drupal

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 6

7 system. It was important to keep some of the experience identical, but the product had to be

easier to understand and provide more flexibility. Tests were conducted for site owners with

various skill levels. Some tests were done on the experienced developer, while others were

performed on users with no prior platform knowledge.

Acceptance Criteria

The user test acceptance criteria were established based on similar tests conducted on the

Drupal 7 system. The criteria for public website access was to reduce the total number of mouse

clicks to find identical information. This validated that the product was easier to navigate on the

new platform. The criteria for the site owner tests was to reduce the amount of time that is

required to produce a web page. The product provided different tools for different skill levels

which provided interesting results from the tests. In almost all scenarios, the time to build a basic

web page was cut in half, while also producing a more visually appealing page.

Backend testing was more rigid and the criteria for success were established as 90% code

coverage and all tests must pass. The code coverage is a measurement of the number of lines of

code that are executed during the test. It is also a requirement to provide some form of

acceptance tests with all major functionality. The acceptance tests vary in complexity, but they

are constantly improved as new bugs are discovered.

Project Review

As a whole, the project went according to the proposed plan. The requirements were

established based on surveys and test data. Then the development team was able to turn those

requirements into a functioning system built on Drupal 8. As the project progressed, the scope of

each requirement was reviewed before implementation. Requirements had to be revised based on

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 7

the experience during the development. For example, a user-friendly page building experience

was not available and had to be built. Nothing had previously been done similar to that work. It

was a large risk that paid out in dividends at the end. The product was produced with some

missing functionality when compared to the Drupal 7 system, but some groups within the

University have expressed interest in funding those improvements to the platform. The product

has received high praise from several groups and continues to push the capabilities of the service

forward.

Assumptions

The project was undertaken with the assumption that the existing hosting provider would

not change, and the new system would be able to live alongside the old Drupal 7 system. This

assumption was correct. The new Drupal 8 system is able to operate in parallel with the older

Drupal 7 system while websites are migrated to the new platform. However, newly created sites

had to navigate the name collisions with their older counterparts. For example, a website

could not be created if a Drupal 7 website existed with the same name. It was

possible to overcome this hurdle with some training and knowledge sharing with the site owners.

There were other assumptions that were correctly accounted for. The existing API

connection to the Drupal 7 platform was able to easily adapt to the Drupal 8 platform. The API

simply required an adjustment to create new sites on the new platform. Another correct

assumption was the decrease in velocity during the winter closure around new years. All team

members were able to observe the holiday season and take the requested time off without

impacting the schedule of the project.

POST-IMPLEMENTATION UNIVERSITY WEBSITE UPGRADE 8

Project Phases

The product was able to be built in accordance with the planned phases. The project went

through an initial phase of discovery and documenting the necessary requirements. This phase

was short and consisted mostly of interviews and surveys. The research was able to acquire

feedback from 38 individuals from various disciplines around the University. The feedback also

consisted of various skill levels, ranging from novice to “power user” as it was termed. At the

end of the phase, a well-defined list of requirements was developed. The list was more extensive

than what was planned for the project, so a backlog of requests was created and was reviewed

when time permitted. The list of requirements was used by the design team to develop visual

mockups of the various areas users focused on most frequently. Great detail was put into this

phase to produce an attractive product for the University.

The second phase of the project consisted of building the base product. The goal of this

phase was to have a functioning product that was capable of hosting a majority of smaller

websites that existed on the Drupal 7 system. 80% of sites on the old platform were found to

consist of less than 25 pages and only use a small subset of the features available. During the

development of the project, the team constantly prepared for the future by building functionality

that would be functional for much larger websites. Because of this foresight, the phase explored

alternative technologies that appeared to be more flexible and easier to use for site builders. A

large risk was taken during this phase to build a brand new drag and drop interface that proved to

win over the stakeholders with flying colors. This phase produced a stronger product than was

originally anticipated and was immediately adopted by dozens of departments within the first

week.

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The final phase consisted of enhancements of the product by providing more content

types such as events and people. The features produced during this phase were introduced in a

staggered approach every other month. The development team was able to implement bug fixes

and other small feature requests at various times throughout this phase to further enhance the

product. But, during this phase, it was clear the product would not be able to be used by some

departments that relied on some features available in the Drupal 7 system. The lack of these

features provided other “mini-projects” that were able to spin off and provide enhancing features

that were easily adopted after meeting the necessary requirements. Because of the mini-projects

and the additional content types, the product was able to provide functionality that appears to be

adopted by 95% of the sites that used to be on Drupal 7.

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Timeline Deviations

The project was able to maintain the proposed timeline with little deviation. During the

second phase, a risk was taken to build a new drag and drop interface for site owners. Because of

the large amount of work needed for that interface, phase 2 was in danger of taking longer. When

it began to be a concern, the team re-evaluated the scope of that interface. The functionality was

greatly reduced, but it increased its stability. Because of the reduced scope, the development

phase was able to maintain its timeline.

Project Dependencies

The project dependency revolved around the funding of the project. It was determined

that the project did not rely on any other project and was able to be self-sufficient. However, the

project did have a dependency on the hosting provider creating a new repository location to host

the new system code. From past experiences, that process could have taken up to two months.

Luckily the Acquia hosting provider was able to complete the request within 4 weeks and the

project was able to continue with no delay.

Resource Requirements

Most of the resource requirements to produce the project consisted of team members. The

team consisted of 9 team members with various specialties. Not all team members were engaged

in the entire project. Some members, such as the designers, had a peak engagement, but then they

were engaged on an as-needed basis. The two front end developers and three back end

developers were engaged almost the entire time and comprised the majority of the resources.

Other resources that were required were some various licenses that were essential for

quicker development. A subscription to an automated testing infrastructure helped developers

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build out reliable testing suites and expose bugs that would have gone unnoticed. This service

has proved to be an enormous benefit since it has found critical bugs within days before the

product being released. The cost of the service has reduced the hours a developer would have

otherwise spent on troubleshooting and fixing issues.

Implementation Project Milestones

The milestones of the project were in various stages. The first milestone was an

established design and requirements document. With the designs and requirements, the project

was able to provide a tangible idea of what the product will become. With those in hand, the

development team was able to establish the groundwork for the product.

The second milestone was perhaps the largest. A fully functioning system, capable of

producing a simple website. The milestone was targeted at 75% of websites on the Drupal 7

platform that held less than 15 pages. The product was made available to the entire University

with limited features, but it had an amazing new user interface that gave more tools to the user

than anything in the Drupal 7 system. The product was quickly adopted and hosted over 50

websites within the first month after release.

The following milestones were smaller but introduced expanded functionality to the

platform. At bi-monthly releases, websites were able to create people, news articles, and event

lists. Each of these milestones was stepping stones toward a full-featured product capable of

hosting 95% of known websites.

Project Deliverables

The project deliverables consisted of a brand new Drupal 8 website building software.

The system has been built as a true SAAS and has been thoroughly tested and reviewed by

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various skill levels and disciplines. The websites hosted on the new system are quick to produce

and even faster for website visitors to load. The new system is capable of hosting custom themes

that provide departments with the ability to have unique looks and expanded functionality if

desired.

Documentation Deliverables

The project software also comes with a very detailed user guide, built on the same system

it explains. The user guide and developer information provide users with step by step instructions

to accomplish the most frequent tasks. The user guide also outlines what features compare to the

old Drupal 7 system and provides resources for anyone that needs additional functionality that

doesn’t exist.

Formative Evaluation Results and Revisions

During the development of each phase, the developer team was in constant

communication with the designers and UX team members. Preview environments were made

available to the designers and UX team to review and provide necessary feedback cycles on each

piece of functionality. These feedback cycles ensured the product was going to produce the

expected results and satisfy the established requirements.

Throughout each phase, the team would engage in bi-weekly meetings with the product

owner to review the roadmap and discuss any concerns about the timeline. In these meetings,

new ideas were brought up for discussion, and they were evaluated by the appropriate

individuals on the team. The team would then prioritize the new ideas based on the available

timeline.

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Summative Evaluation Plan and Results

Near the end of the second and third phases, the product was placed in a code freeze and

new features were paused or developed outside of the release. Then a thorough analysis of the

requirements was implemented. The product was evaluated by an in house QA team to review

compliance with the requirements as well as reveal bugs in the system. Bugs and flaws were

categorized based on their level of impact on the platform and if there were temporary

workarounds available to the user. During this code freeze, any critical bugs were corrected. If

time permitted during the code freeze, additional bugs were corrected by the developers.

After the product was released to the University, communication was made available to a

subset of users. These users were asked to review the product and provide feedback on the

functionality as well as any bugs they discover. The feedback was then placed into the backlog

for future improvements as time permitted.

Stakeholder Communication Plan and Reports

Communication with the stakeholders was done in two methods based on the group of

stakeholders. The more general stakeholders, the existing site owners on the old system, were

emailed with general information at the start of the project. A University-wide newsletter was

sent out at the beginning and when the product was made available. The newsletter gave

information on the available features and instructions on how to learn more.

Communication with the advisory group was more interactive. The advisory group was a

small group of individuals who have a large amount of influence on the product. Monthly

meetings were set up with the advisory group and upper management. These meetings included

formal presentations as well as discussion opportunities to review desired features. After the

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advisory group had experience using the initial product, surveys were sent out to gather feedback

on their experience. The advisory group was asked to rank some of the features that don’t exist to

determine which missing functionality is most desired. The results of the feedback and surveys

were put into the backlog for future improvements if funding is available.

Ongoing Support and Maintenance

Part of using open-source software such as Drupal, maintenance is a must. Security

announcements are released almost weekly, and they must be reviewed and implemented in a

timely manner. Also, additional functionality will certainly be desired by various groups around

campus. Funding from those groups will help to build additional functionality as well as provide

maintenance during those engagements.

Resources for Post-Implementation Support

After releasing the product to the University, there has been an overwhelming amount of

interest to enhance the product. Different schools and departments have expressed interest to

build specific functionality that they are familiar with on the old Drupal 7 system. Resources to

implement these features and support the product will be made available by engaging with these

groups. Some features that are requested will be considerably large and will require additional

personnel resources. Those engagements will be undertaken as individual projects and will have

a corresponding project plan with resource plans.

Short and Long Term Maintenance Plan

The short term maintenance of the product mostly consists of bug fixes. For the first 6

months after completion of the project, bug fixes will be addressed and released during

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maintenance windows. Any critical security issue or site breaking bug will be resolved with a

hotfix at the earliest window available.

As Drupal 8 progresses, Drupal 9 will be released. Luckily the upgrade to Drupal 9 will

be much less intrusive than this project was for the upgrade to Drupal 8. The long term

maintenance plan will consist of observing the Drupal 9 upgrade path. The product will be able

to lean on the open-source community to provide the majority of the upgrade requirements to get

to Drupal 9. If any module in use does not have Drupal 9 compatibility, the maintenance plan

will include upgrading those parts and providing the upgrade back to the open-source

community. Once the Drupal 9 upgrade is complete, the product will resume normal security and

bug fix maintenance as outlined in the short term maintenance plan.

Post-Implementation Project Summary

The old University website hosting system was based on Drupal 7. With the introduction

of Drupal 8, Drupal 7 was scheduled with an end-of-life date. As that date is coming in the near

future, the system will become insecure as new security vulnerabilities are not discovered or

patched. These vulnerabilities could compromise the websites hosted on the Drupal 7 platform

and sensitive information could be released to the public. It was vital that the University invests

in a new website system available to the University. Drupal 8 provided a great opportunity to

continue with a similar experience but also introduce new and exciting functionality. The Drupal

8 product was developed to meet the needs of 95% of the websites on the Drupal 7 system.

Upgrade paths and instructions were provided for faster adoption. After the product was

complete, new websites on the Drupal 7 platform were no longer allowed. As the product was

more widely adopted, the sites on the Drupal 7 system were retired and archived. The Drupal 8

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product began to gain even more popularity and was quickly adopted by some of the largest

departments on campus, including the University Library.

Documentation Deliverables

Documentation deliverables include many comparisons against the old Drupal 7

platform. Because the new Drupal 8 platform was much more locked down in regards to

customizations, a list was provided that outlines the similarities and differences. Many users

were able to reference this documentation to determine if the new product fits their needs before

beginning a new website project.

Documentation also includes step by step instructions to guide the user through the user

interface. Although some help text was provided within the user interface, additional information

was provided that expanded on these tips. Screenshots and videos helped to reinforce the

processes to build out specific pages that are most common with a modern look and feel. On top

of this user guide, a developer guide was provided to assist any new development team looking

to contribute back to the product.

Success Criteria for Each Project Outcome

The project was intended to assist in the building of websites consisting of 50 pages or

less. This metric does not include pages not existing in the menu structure. The primary

development consisted of building out a user-friendly page building experience. The criteria for

this outcome was based on user feedback. The experience had to be easier to navigate and faster

to build when compared to the Drupal 7 system. Surveys were provided to early adopters and the

advisory board that helped to validate these criteria.

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Alongside the primary website page building, supplemental page content was necessary

for a successful project. News articles, event listings, and a person directory were required to fill

out the needs of departments on campus. The success of each of these consisted of an intuitive

data entry interface that produced visually appealing pages. The data structure had to be similar

enough to the Drupal 7 platform for easy migration to the new system. Further requirements

consisted of methods to import content of these types from external sources such as the

University directory and the University event system. Criteria for these imports entailed an easy

to use configuration interface and automatic synchronization of that content without user

interaction. A website owner should be able to rely on automation to consume any new events,

people, or news articles.

Justification of Proposed Versus Actual Project Outcomes

The page building experience of the project went through various iterations before one

was found to be most intuitive for the user. The product first was implemented with tools that

were already available from the open-source community, but these tools were very limited and

didn’t align with the requirements of the project. The project reviewed various alternatives to

obtain an easy to the user interface. One alternative was the review of “Cohesion”, a product

provided by Acquia which allowed an easy drag and drop experience (Acquia Cohesion). Due to

the cost of that interface, the product had to pivot and review other options. Eventually, an in

house drag and drop system was built by the development team and was quickly adopted as the

most user-friendly Drupal experience. The platform outcome was quick to garner praise by all of

the advisory board and several early adopters.

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Lessons Learned

As discussed earlier, providing an easy to use interface for page building posed a greater

challenge than was originally anticipated. The development team quickly learned that using

alternative technologies can often enhance the experience for users and prevent roadblocks from

other systems. The team is now looking to take advantage of those technologies in a wider scope

and the available features that can be provided are growing rapidly.

The project also sheds light on how dependent the University is reliant on the availability

of free website service. These days with the impact of Covid-19, finances across the University

are becoming tighter. Departments and schools are re-evaluating their budgets and most are

changing the scope of their website presence. With the Drupal 8 product now available for free,

those groups around the University are less concerned with their websites and are able to build

amazing products with zero budget.

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References

Acquia Cohesion. (n.d.). Retrieved July 03, 2020, from

https://www.acquia.com/products-services/acquia-cohesion

Hojtsy, G. (2020, June 16). Upgrading a Drupal 8 site to Drupal 9. Retrieved July 03, 2020, from

https://www.drupal.org/docs/updating-drupal/how-to-prepare-your-drupal-7-or-8-site-for-

drupal-9/upgrading-a-drupal-8-site

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