See the the attached

See the the attached
1 PHIL 151: INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY EPISTEMOLOGY EXAM STUDY GUIDE STRUCTURE The Exam consists of 30 questions, multiple -choice. Questions will be taken from the content of the course, including: power point presentations /audio lectures and readings . You are permitted to take the exam anytime while it is open. You are allowed two hours to complete the exam upon opening it. The exam must be completed in one sitting: you are NOT permitted to close it and return to it later. Your exam preparation should focus on the following: I. POWER POINT PRESENTATIONS /AUDIO LECTURES Prepare thorough answers to each of the following questions (organized by topic) Topic 6: Introduction to Epistemology 1. What is epistemology? 2. What are the three central issues in epistemology? 3. What is Socratic wisdom/Socratic ignorance? What were the three specific groups of people Socrates spoke to in his pursuit of knowledge? 4. What is the first definition of knowledge offered in Plato’s Theaetetus (as explained in lecture)? Whic h sophist is associated with this definition? What are problems associated with this definition? 5. What is the second definition of knowledge offered in Plato’s Theaetetus (as explained in lecture)? What are problems associated with this definition? 6. What is the last definition of knowledge offered in Plato’s Theaetetus (as explained in lecture), which is also recognized as the traditional definition of knowledge? What are problems associated with this definition? 7. What are the five sources of knowledge? 8. What i s skepticism? Who are famous skeptics, as discussed in lecture? How is skepticism different from ordinary doubt? Topic 7: Plato’s Cave 9. What is the central topic in Plato’s Republic? What are the three parts of the soul according to Plato? What is Plato’s definition of justice? 10. Know the allegory of the cave, including the full setting of the stage , the full narrative of the cave 11. How is the narrative of the cave an allegory for Plato’s metaphysics? What is the role of the sun? 12. How is the narrative of the cave an allegory for Plato’s epistemology? What is the role of the sun? 13. What are Plato’s two epistemic states? What are Plato’s four kinds of knowledge? What is the hierarchy and organization of th ese four kinds of knowledge? 14. How is the narrative of the cave an allegory for Plato’s theory of the education of the soul? Topic 8: Rationalism 15. What is a priori knowledge? What is a posteriori knowledge? 16. What is rationalism? 17. Who is Rene Descartes? Why does Descartes write his book, Meditations ? 18. What is the scientific revolution? 2 19. What is the Church’s response to the scientific revolution? 20. Who are the relevant natural philosophers in the scientific revolution? 21. What is methodological /systematic doubt? Why does Descartes use this method? 22. What are the three arguments (under methodological/systematic doubt) that Descartes presents in Meditation One ? 23. What is Descartes’ sense perception argument? What is his response to this argument? What does this argumen t lead him to doubt /find dubitable ? What remains indubitable? 24. What is Descartes’ Dream Argument? What is his response to this argument? What does this argument lead him to doubt /find dubitable ? What remains indubitable? 25. What is Descartes’ Evil Demon Argume nt? What are the characteristics assumed about this demon? What does this argument lead him to doubt /find dubitable ? 26. In Meditation Two, what is the one thing that Descartes claims he can know with absolute certainty , even through the Evil Demon Argument ? W hat is his reasoning for this certainty? 27. What is solipsism? 28. Which philosophers objected to Descartes’ reasoning for this absolutely certain claim? What are the specific objections? Topic 9: Empiricism 29. What is empiricism? Who are the famous empiricists in philosophy? Which field of inquiry serves as the paradigm of empiricism? 30. Who is John Locke? 31. What does Locke mean by ideas ? What is the theory of innate ideas? What are Locke’s objections against the theory of innate ideas? 32. What does Locke mean by tabula rasa ? 33. What are the three ways ideas are derived under Locke’s empiricism? What are the examples of ideas specifically mentioned in lecture (from Locke) that fall under each way of derivation? 34. What are simple ideas in Locke’s empiricism? What are complex ideas in Locke’s empiricism? 35. What are primary qualities? What are the specific examples of qualities identified in lecture (from Locke)? 36. What are secondary qualities? What are the specific examples of secondary qualities identi fied in lecture (from Locke)? 37. What are Locke’s three thought experiments to support his distinction between primary and secondary qualities? 38. What are Locke’s three kinds of knowledge? 39. What is Locke’s inference to the best explanation for the existence of t he external world? Topic 10 : Skepticism 40. What is David Hume’s methodology in his system of philosophy as discussed in lecture? 41. What are the two kinds of perceptions in Hume’s empiricism? What are the three principles of connection in Hume’s empiricism? 42. What are Hume’s two kinds of knowledge? What are the properties/attributes of each kind? What are the problems/ shortcomings of each that Hume identifies ? 43. What is analytic knowledge? What is synthetic knowledge? 44. Which traditional concepts/beliefs did Hume regard with skepticism? 45. What is Hume’s argument concerning knowledge of God’s existence? 46. What is Hume’s argument concerning knowledge of the existence of the Self. 3 47. What is Hume’s argument concerning knowledge of the existence of t he external world. 48. What are the four traditional components of causality? Which component(s) does Hume treat with skepticism? What is Hume’s argument concerning the knowledge of causality. What kind of knowledge does causality fall under? 49. What is Hume’s “ problem of induction”. What are two responses to the problem? Why does Hume reject each response? 50. What is Immanuel Kant’s response to Hume’s skepticism and theory of knowledge? II. READINGS Know the readings (be able to identify who is the author of each of the readings, the title of each work, the central ideas and arguments, famous passages and their meaning within them)