Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Outline of Science and Society section | The Best Academic Writing Website

 

What do you need to do?

* Review the video and link related to writing outlines.

* In your textbook, go to the section titled Science and Society

* Type a rough outline of this section.  Use a clear and logical format–introduction, followed by the sub-sections.

* Fill out the outline by recalling the information you have read. When necessary polish by looking back at the text.

* Note that you are just doing one section–not the whole chapter.
* There’s no video included it’s just a video that shows you how to outline.

One effective way to do this is to outline the sections, one at a time, within each chapter. 

Instead of reading the whole chapter at once, take it one section at a time. A section is a chunk of information, usually under a heading. Breaking your reading up into chunks makes it much easier to digest the information.

 

Once you have read a section, close your book and fill in the key points on the outline you made before you started. Working from memory will help make sure you paid attention to what you were reading and helps you recall the information later when studying.

Repeat this process for all of the sections in your assigned reading, until you have a complete set of notes.

 

Write in the margins or use sticky notes to add extra information to your notes. Write down questions you would like to ask your teacher, key terms and concepts to remember,  ideas and connections, and review questions for studying.

Avoid the following:

Writing information from the textbook word-for-word doesn’t encourage you to think about what you have read.  Writing down ideas in your own words ensures you understand the information from the textbook.

A common note-taking mistake is writing down every tiny detail from the textbook. Writing too much information in your notes is time-consuming and makes it hard to take away key ideas.

On the other hand, not writing enough detail may not help you remember the information, making studying later on much more difficult.  Focus on the key takeaways and make sure to write down important terms or concepts.

 The material outlined in this link Chp 1 and 2 is an example keep in mind this is taken from a book organized differently than The Good Earth:       

Chapter 1: Earth as a System / Chapter 2: The Nature of Science

I. Branches of Earth Sciences

A. Geology- the study of the Earth- the study of the origin, history, processes (in and on
the surface) and structure of the solid Earth.

B. Oceanography- the study of the Earth’s oceans and the life and processes that affect

it. Earth is cover by about 71% water, most of which is found in Earth’s oceans (salty).

C. Meteorology- the study of Earth’s atmosphere. This involves day to day weather and
more long term processes such as climate and climate change.

D. Astronomy- the study of Earth’s place in space; the Universe beyond Earth. This

branches involves all things that outside of the Earth system. Stars, planets, the solar
system are several of examples.

II. Environmental Science and the Earth Sciences:

Earth provides the resources that make life as well know it possible. Earth also provides
the materials to enrich the quality of a person’s life. Natural resources are things such as
fresh water, clean air, rock and mineral resources and fossil fuels.

III. How Is Science Different from Other Fields of Study?

A. As they study the natural world, scientists assume two things:

1. It is possible to understand nature.

a. Scientists assume that with the right tools and correct methods, they can find the

answers they are looking for.

2. Nature is predictable.

b. In general, scientists observe patterns in nature. From the way a pattern

repeats, scientists can predict that an event will happen in a similar way in the
future

IV. What Are Scientific Methods?

V. OBSERVING AND ASKING QUESTIONS

A. Scientific methods generally begin with observation.
Observation is the process of using the five senses to collect information about the
world. Observations that scientists make often lead them to ask questions.

VI. FORMING A HYPOTHESIS

A. Once scientists have asked a question and made a few observations, they might then

form a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a possible way to explain or solve a problem.
Scientists base their hypotheses on observations or on known facts about similar
events.

VII. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS

A. After scientists form a hypothesis, they look for ways to test it in an investigation. In

some investigations, the scientist will make more observations and see if they fit the
hypothesis.

B. In other investigations, a scientist will do an experiment to test a hypothesis.

1. An experiment is a set of procedures that a scientist carries out. Every

experiment has conditions or factors that can change. These factors are called
variables.

a. There are two types of variables.

i. Independent variables are factors that the scientist changes. (amount

of water a plant receives)

ii. Dependent variables are factors that change

as a result of the independent variables.
(amount the plant grows in response to it being watered)

VIII. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

A. Scientists must decide if their observations support the hypothesis, or show that the
hypothesis was correct. In many cases, the results of an experiment are unexpected.

B. If the results do not support the hypothesis, the scientists must throw out the

hypothesis or change it.

IX. How Do Scientists Use Models?

A. In Earth science, it is often impossible to use an experiment to test a hypothesis.

Instead, scientists make additional observations to gather evidence.

B. Scientists also may use models to test hypotheses they cannot test using an
experiment. A model is a description or a representation of an object, an idea, a
system, or an event. Some models describe objects, such as atoms.
Others describe processes, such as the water cycle.
Scientists often use models to study things that are too big, too small, too fast, too
slow, or too dangerous to study directly.

1. Examples of models include:

X. How Do Scientists Make Accurate Measurements?

A. Scientists gather information during investigations. Measurement is a very important
method for gathering information in most scientific investigations.

XI. SI UNITS

A. Scientists need to be able to compare and analyze each other’s results.

Therefore, scientists around the world use a common system of measurement.
The system is called the International System of Units, or SI. Meters and
kilograms are examples of SI units.

Kilo Hecto Deka Meter Deci Centi Milli

Liter
Gram
Newton

XII. ACCURACY AND PRECISION

A. Accuracy and precision are two ways to describe measurements.

1. Accuracy describes how close a measurement is to the true value (target).
2. Precision describes how exact a measurement is (close to other measures).

XIII. How Does Scientific Knowledge Grow?

A. When scientists discover something new, they share their ideas with other scientists.

The other scientists review and test the ideas before accepting the new ideas.

XIV. SHARING RESULTS

A. Scientists typically share their results as papers in scientific journals. They also share

ideas at meetings with other scientists. Many journals are now published online so that
scientists can share their ideas more quickly and easily.

XV. PEER REVIEW

A. Before scientists publish their work, they show it to other scientists who are experts on

the topic. Those experts review the work. The reviewers may suggest
changes to the investigation. They may also point out errors in thinking that scientists
did not see. This process is called peer review.

XVI. DEVELOPING A THEORY

A. After a scientist publishes his ideas and results, other scientists typically test the

hypothesis and build on the results. The process of repeated testing may continue for
years. In time, the hypothesis may be proved incorrect, be changed, or be accepted by
most scientists. When a hypothesis has been tested many times and becomes accepted,
the hypothesis may help form a theory. A theory is an explanation that is supported by
all existing observations and study results. However, if repeated results from later tests
do not support the theory, scientists may need to change it.

XVII. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE

A. Scientists from many different fields of science share their ideas. Sharing ideas

between fields is important because discoveries in different fields may add support to
one idea. When an idea is supported by evidence from more than one field, the idea is
more likely to be accurate. The figure below shows one hypothesis that is based on
evidence from several fields of science.

B. Scientific knowledge helps people understand the natural world. It also helps people
develop new technologies, such as tools, materials, and processes. Many technologies
are helpful, but some new technologies can cause problems. For example, plastic is a
technology that is useful in many products. However, plastics
can cause pollution and harm wildlife. An understanding of science is important for all
citizens. Thinking scientifically can help people make wise decisions about products
they buy, where they live, and even how they vote.

How did our Moon form?

Chapter 2 Section 2: Energy in the Earth System

I. What Is a System?

A. Earth scientists often say that Earth is a system. A system is a group of related objects
or processes that work together to form a whole. Systems can be as small as an atom or as
large as the whole universe.

B. The parts of a system interact, or affect one another. Systems can also interact with
other systems. Systems can interact by exchanging matter or energy. Matter is anything
that has mass and takes up space. Energy is the ability to do work. Heat, light, and
vibrations are examples of energy.

C. Two kinds of systems

1. Open System – a system that
exchanges both matter and energy with
the surroundings. The jar shown to the
right is an open system.

2. Closed System- system that exchanges
energy but not matter with the
surroundings. The sealed jar in the right
hand picture is a closed system.
Energy can move into and out of the jar.
Because the jar is sealed, no matter can
enter or leave the system.

C. Earth is almost a closed system. Energy enters the Earth system in the form of
sunlight. Energy leaves the system in the form of heat. Only tiny amounts of matter
enter and leave the system. Therefore, scientists often model Earth as a closed
system.

II. What Are Earth’s Four Spheres?

A. The Earth system is made up of four “spheres.” These spheres are not large round
objects. They are the different areas where all of Earth’s matter is found. The four
spheres are the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the geosphere, and the biosphere.

1. THE ATMOSPHERE (AIR)

a. The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds Earth. The air we
breathe is part of the atmosphere.

b. The atmosphere also protects Earth from much of the sun’s harmful
radiation.

c. About 78% of Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen gas. About 21% is oxygen
gas. The rest is made up of other gases, such as argon and carbon dioxide.

2. THE HYDROSPHERE (WATER)

a. All the water on Earth makes up the hydrosphere.

b. Almost all the water in the hydrosphere is salty. (97%)

c. Only 3% is fresh water. Fresh water is found in streams, lakes, and rivers.
It is also frozen in glaciers and the polar ice sheets and is found underground
in soil and bedrock.

3. THE GEOSPHERE (EARTH)

a. The geosphere is all the rock and soil on the continents and on the ocean
floor.

b. The geosphere also includes the solid and liquid rock and metal inside
Earth.

c. Some natural processes, such as volcanic eruptions, bring matter from
Earth’s interior to its surface. Other natural processes move surface matter
into Earth’s interior.

4. THE BIOSPHERE (LIFE)

a. The biosphere is made up of all Earth’s living things.

b. Organic matter from dead organisms is also part of the biosphere.

c. Once this organic matter has decomposed, it becomes part of the other
three spheres.

d. The biosphere extends from within Earth’s crust to a few kilometers
above Earth’s surface.

III. What Are the Sources of Energy in the Earth System?

A. Energy enters the Earth system in the form of sunlight. Energy also leaves the Earth system as
heat. The amount of energy that enters the Earth system is the same as the amount of energy that
leaves it. In other words, the energy that enters and leaves the system is balanced.

B. Solar Energy – 99.985% of the energy in the Earth System comes from sunlight.
This energy represents about 1/2000000000% (2 Billionth of a percent of the total
energy output of the Sun.

C. Geothermal Energy -.013% of the energy in the Earth System comes from Earth’s
interior. This energy drives the motion of Earth’s plates, powers volcanoes, causes
earthquakes, and is an important part of the rock cycle.

D. Tidal Energy – 002% of the energy in the Earth System is tidal energy. This energy is
driven by the gravity of the Moon pulling on the liquid outer layer of Earth.

IV. How Does Matter Move on Earth?

A. Like energy, matter moves between the parts of the Earth system. A place where
matter or energy is stored is called a reservoir.

1. For example, the oceans, atmosphere, and living things are some of the
reservoirs for water.

2. The group of processes that move matter between reservoirs is called a cycle.

3. Four important matter cycles on Earth are the nitrogen cycle, the carbon cycle,
the phosphorus cycle, and the water cycle.

V. THE NITROGEN CYCLE
A. Living things use nitrogen to build proteins and other important chemicals. The diagram
below shows the processes that are part of the nitrogen cycle.

VI. THE CARBON CYCLE

A. Almost all the chemicals that make up living things are based on carbon. Like
nitrogen, carbon cycles through the Earth system. The diagram below shows the parts of
the carbon cycle.

B. Scientists often break the carbon cycle into two parts: the short-term carbon cycle and
the long-term carbon cycle.

C. In one part of the short-term carbon cycle, plants take carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere. They change the carbon dioxide into sugars and other chemicals in the
process of photosynthesis. The plants use these chemicals to build and repair their cells.

D. Animals that eat the plants break down the chemicals in the plants. They use some of
the chemicals for energy. In the process of respiration, they break the chemicals down to
release the energy stored in them. Respiration produces carbon dioxide gas, which moves
back into the atmosphere. Plants also carry out respiration, in addition to photosynthesis.

E. When living things die, bacteria break down their bodies. This process is called
decomposition. Most of the carbon in their bodies changes back into carbon dioxide gas.
Respiration, photosynthesis, and decomposition make up the short-term carbon cycle.

F. In the long-term carbon cycle, carbon moves through all four of Earth’s spheres. The
remains of some living things are buried underground. Heat and pressure change them
into fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. This process takes millions of years.
People burn fossil fuels for energy in a process called combustion. Combustion produces
carbon dioxide.

VI. The Phosphorus Cycle

A. Phosphorus is another element that living things use to build important chemicals.
Unlike carbon and nitrogen, phosphorus generally does not exist as a gas. Therefore,
it is not found in the atmosphere.

B. Most of the phosphorus on Earth is stored in rocks. Water and wind can break down
the rocks and release the phosphorus. It can then flow into water and soil.

C. Plants get phosphorus from the soil. Animals get phosphorus by eating plants or

other animals. The phosphorus in living things returns to the soil when the living
things die and decompose.

VII. The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle

A. Water is always moving between the atmosphere, land, oceans, and living things. This
movement of water is called the water cycle.

B. In the water cycle, water changes state, from solid to liquid to gas and back again. The
graphic below describes some of the processes in the water cycle.

Condensation Run Off Transpiration
Infiltration Condensation Precipitation
Accumulation Evaporation

Condensation = water vapor (gas) converting into liquid water

Evaporation = liquid water converting into water vapor (gas)

Precipitation = some form of water falling from the sky (Snow, rain, sleet)

Infiltration = liquid water soaking into the ground

Transpiration = water vapor being returned to the atmosphere by plants.